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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 12, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from multi-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and the relevant products have become one of the most utilized parameters in the space weather and ionospheric research community. However, there are a couple of challenges in using the global TEC map data including large data gaps over oceans and the potential of losing meso-scale ionospheric structures when applying traditional reconstruction and smoothing algorithms. In this paper, we describe and release a global TEC map database, constructed and completed based on the Madrigal TEC database with a novel video imputation algorithm called VISTA (Video Imputation with SoftImpute, Temporal smoothing and Auxiliary data). The complete TEC maps reveal important large-scale TEC structures and preserve the observed meso-scale structures. Basic ideas and the pipeline of the video imputation algorithm are introduced briefly, followed by discussions on the computational costs and fine tuning of the adopted algorithm. Discussions on potential usages of the complete TEC database are given, together with a concrete example of applying this database.

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  3. Gavis, E (Ed.)
    Abstract Bacteriophage integrase-directed insertion of transgenic constructs into specific genomic loci has been widely used by Drosophila community. The attP40 landing site located on the second chromosome gained popularity because of its high inducible transgene expression levels. Here, unexpectedly, we found that homozygous attP40 chromosome disrupts normal glomerular organization of Or47b olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) class in Drosophila. This effect is not likely to be caused by the loss of function of Msp300, where the attP40 docking site is inserted. Moreover, the attP40 background seems to genetically interact with the second chromosome Or47b-GAL4 driver, which results in a similar glomerular defect. Whether the ORN phenotype is caused by the neighbouring genes around Msp300 locus in the presence of attP40-based insertions or a second unknown mutation in the attP40 background remains elusive. Our findings tell a cautionary tale about using this popular transgenic landing site, highlighting the importance of rigorous controls to rule out the attP40 landing site-associated background effects. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  5. Low-cost, high-performance oxygen catalysts are critical for electrochemical water splitting and metal-air batteries. Herein, carbon aerogels with skeletons consisting of few-layer graphene are derived pyrolytically from a hydrogel precursor using an array of NaCl crystals as the template, exhibiting a high electrical conductivity (869 S m−1) and an ultralow mass density (11.1 mg cm−3). The deposition of NiFe layered double hydroxide (NiFeLDH) nanocolloids renders the aerogels active towards both the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions (ORR/OER), with the performances highly comparable to those of commercial benchmarks in both alkaline and neutral media. Results from operando Raman spectroscopy measurements and first principles calculations suggest that Fe(OH)3 colloids facilitate the oxidation of Ni2+, which lowers the energy barrier to 0.42 eV for OER, whereas the nitrogen-doped carbon aerogels are responsible for the ORR activity. With the composites used as bifunctional oxygen catalysts for electrochemical water splitting and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, the performances in both alkaline and neutral media are markedly better than those based on the mixture of commercial Pt/C and RuO2. Results from this study highlight the unique advantages of ultrathin graphene aerogels in the development of effective catalysts for electrochemical energy devices. 
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  6. Abstract The fluorescent glutamate indicator iGluSnFR enables imaging of neurotransmission with genetic and molecular specificity. However, existing iGluSnFR variants exhibit low in vivo signal-to-noise ratios, saturating activation kinetics and exclusion from postsynaptic densities. Using a multiassay screen in bacteria, soluble protein and cultured neurons, we generated variants with improved signal-to-noise ratios and kinetics. We developed surface display constructs that improve iGluSnFR’s nanoscopic localization to postsynapses. The resulting indicator iGluSnFR3 exhibits rapid nonsaturating activation kinetics and reports synaptic glutamate release with decreased saturation and increased specificity versus extrasynaptic signals in cultured neurons. Simultaneous imaging and electrophysiology at individual boutons in mouse visual cortex showed that iGluSnFR3 transients report single action potentials with high specificity. In vibrissal sensory cortex layer 4, we used iGluSnFR3 to characterize distinct patterns of touch-evoked feedforward input from thalamocortical boutons and both feedforward and recurrent input onto L4 cortical neuron dendritic spines. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024