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    The connection between the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (fesc) and the properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass ($\rm M_{\rm *}$), age, star-formation rate (SFR), and dust content, are key inputs for reionization models, but many of these relationships remain untested at high redshift. We present an analysis of a sample of 96 $z$ ∼ 3 galaxies from the Keck Lyman Continuum Spectroscopic Survey (KLCS). These galaxies have both sensitive Keck/LRIS spectroscopic measurements of the Lyman continuum (LyC) region, and multiband photometry that places constraints on stellar population parameters. We construct composite spectra from subsamples binned as a function of galaxy property and quantify the ionizing-photon escape for each composite. We find a significant anti-correlation between fesc and $\rm M_{\rm *}$, consistent with predictions from cosmological zoom-in simulations. We also find significant anti-correlation between fesc and E(B−V), encoding the underlying physics of LyC escape in our sample. We also find no significant correlation between fesc and either stellar age or specific SFR (= SFR/$\rm M_{\rm *}$), challenging interpretations that synchronize recent star formation and favorable conditions for ionizing escape. The galaxy properties now shown to correlate with fesc in the KLCS are Lyα equivalent width, UV Luminosity, $\rm M_{\rmmore »*}$, SFR, and E(B−V), but not age or sSFR. This comprehensive analysis of galaxy properties and LyC escape at high redshift will be used to guide future models and observations of the reionization epoch.

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    We present new spectroscopic observations of Ly α (Ly α) Blob 2 (z ∼ 3.1). We observed extended Ly α emission in three distinct regions, where the highest Ly α surface brightness (SB) centre is far away from the known continuum sources. We searched through the MOSFIRE slits that cover the high Ly α SB regions, but were unable to detect any significant nebular emission near the highest SB centre. We further mapped the flux ratio of the blue peak to the red peak and found it is anticorrelated with Ly α SB with a power-law index of ∼ –0.4. We used radiative transfer models with both multiphase, clumpy, and shell geometries and successfully reproduced the diverse Ly α morphologies. We found that most spectra suggest outflow-dominated kinematics, while 4/15 spectra imply inflows. A significant correlation exists between parameter pairs, and the multiphase, clumpy model may alleviate previously reported discrepancies. We also modelled Ly α spectra at different positions simultaneously and found that the variation of the inferred clump outflow velocities can be approximately explained by line-of-sight projection effects. Our results support the ‘central powering  + scattering’ scenario, i.e. the Ly α photons are generated by a central powering source and then scatter with outflowing, multiphase H  i gas whilemore »propagating outwards. The infalling of cool gas near the blob outskirts shapes the observed blue-dominated Ly α profiles, but its energy contribution to the total Ly α luminosity is less than 10 per cent, i.e. minor compared to the photoionization by star-forming galaxies and/or AGNs.

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  3. ABSTRACT Observations of reionization-era analogues at z ∼ 3 are a powerful tool for constraining reionization. Rest-ultraviolet observations are particularly useful, in which both direct and indirect tracers of ionizing-photon production and escape can be observed. We analyse a sample of 124 z ∼ 3 galaxies from the Keck Lyman Continuum Spectroscopic Survey, with sensitive spectroscopic measurements of the Lyman continuum region. We present a method of removing foreground contamination from our sample using high-resolution, multiband Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We re-measure the global properties of the cleaned sample of 13 individually detected Lyman continuum sources and 107 individually undetected sources, including a sample-averaged absolute escape fraction of fesc, abs = 0.06 ± 0.01 and a sample-averaged ratio of ionizing to non-ionizing ultraviolet flux density of 〈f900/f1500〉out = 0.040 ± 0.006, corrected for attenuation from the intergalactic and circumgalactic media. Based on composite spectra, we also recover a strong positive correlation between 〈f900/f1500〉out and Lyα equivalent width (Wλ(Ly$\rm \alpha$)) and a negative correlation between 〈f900/f1500〉out and UV luminosity. As in previous work, we interpret the relationship between 〈f900/f1500〉out and Wλ(Ly$\rm \alpha$) in terms of the modulation of the escape of ionizing radiation from star-forming galaxies based on the covering fraction of neutral gas. We also usemore »a Wλ(Ly$\rm \alpha$)-weighted 〈f900/f1500〉out to estimate an ionizing emissivity from star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 3 as ϵLyC ≃ 5.5 × 1024 erg s−1 Hz−1 Mpc−3. This estimate, evaluated using the uncontaminated sample of this work, affirms that the contribution of galaxies to the ionizing background at z ∼ 3 is comparable to that of active galactic nuclei.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We present new observations of Lyman-α (Lyα) Blob 1 (LAB1) in the SSA22 protocluster region (z = 3.09) using the Keck Cosmic Web Imager and Keck Multi-object Spectrometer for Infrared Exploration. We have created a narrow-band Lyα image and identified several prominent features. By comparing the spatial distributions and intensities of Lyα and Hβ, we find that recombination of photo-ionized H i gas followed by resonant scattering is sufficient to explain all the observed Lyα/Hβ ratios. We further decode the spatially resolved Lyα profiles using both moment maps and radiative transfer modelling. By fitting a set of multiphase, ‘clumpy’ models to the observed Lyα profiles, we manage to reasonably constrain many parameters, namely the H i number density in the interclump medium (ICM), the cloud volume filling factor, the random velocity and outflow velocity of the clumps, the H i outflow velocity of the ICM, and the local systemic redshift. Our model has successfully reproduced the diverse Lyα morphologies, and the main results are: (1) the observed Lyα spectra require relatively few clumps per line of sight as they have significant fluxes at the line centre; (2) the velocity dispersion of the clumps yields a significant broadening of the spectra as observed; (3)more »the clump bulk outflow can also cause additional broadening if the H i in the ICM is optically thick; (4) and the H i in the ICM is responsible for the absorption feature close to the Lyα line centre.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present the first statistical analysis of kinematically resolved, spatially extended $\rm Ly\alpha$ emission around z = 2–3 galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS) using the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). Our sample of 59 star-forming galaxies (zmed = 2.29) comprises the subset with typical KCWI integration times of ∼5 h and with existing imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope and/or adaptive optics-assisted integral field spectroscopy. The high-resolution images were used to evaluate the azimuthal dependence of the diffuse $\rm Ly\alpha$ emission with respect to the stellar continuum within projected galactocentric distances of ≲30 proper kpc. We introduce cylindrically projected 2D spectra (CP2D) that map the averaged $\rm Ly\alpha$ spectral profile over a specified range of azimuthal angle, as a function of impact parameter around galaxies. The averaged CP2D spectrum of all galaxies shows clear signatures of $\rm Ly\alpha$ resonant scattering by outflowing gas. We stacked the CP2D spectra of individual galaxies over ranges of azimuthal angle with respect to their major axes. The extended $\rm Ly\alpha$ emission along the galaxy principal axes is statistically indistinguishable, with residual asymmetry of ≤2 per cent (∼2σ) of the integrated $\rm Ly\alpha$ emission. The symmetry implies that the $\rm Ly\alpha$ scattering medium is dominatedmore »by outflows in all directions within 30 kpc. Meanwhile, we find that the blueshifted component of $\rm Ly\alpha$ emission is marginally stronger along galaxy minor axes for galaxies with relatively weak $\rm Ly\alpha$ emission. We speculate that this weak directional dependence of $\rm Ly\alpha$ emission becomes discernible only when the $\rm Ly\alpha$ escape fraction is low. These discoveries highlight the need for similar analyses in simulations with $\rm Ly\alpha$ radiative transfer modelling.« less