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  1. Abstract

    The photothermal effect in nanomaterials, resulting from resonant optical absorption, finds wide applications in biomedicine, cancer therapy, and microscopy. Despite its prevalence, the photothermal effect in light-absorbing nanoparticles has typically been assessed using bulk measurements, neglecting near-field effects. Beyond standard imaging and therapeutic uses, nanosecond-transient photothermal effects have been harnessed for bacterial inactivation, neural stimulation, drug delivery, and chemical synthesis. While scanning probe microscopy and electron microscopy offer single-particle imaging of photothermal fields, their slow speed limits observations to milliseconds or seconds, preventing nanoscale dynamic investigations. Here, we introduce decoupled optical force nanoscopy (Dofn), enabling nanometer-scale mapping of photothermal forces by exploiting unique phase responses to temporal modulation. We employ the photothermal effect’s back-action to distinguish various time frames within a modulation period. This allows us to capture the dynamic photothermal process of a single gold nanorod in the nanosecond range, providing insights into non-stationary thermal diffusion at the nanoscale.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. ABSTRACT De novo root regeneration (DNRR) is a developmental process that regenerates adventitious roots from wounded tissues. Phytohormone signaling pathways involved in microbial resistance are mobilized after cutting and influence de novo root regeneration. Microbes may positively or negatively influence the development and stress responses of a plant. However, most studies on the molecular mechanisms of de novo organogenesis are performed in aseptic conditions. Thus, the potential crosstalk between organ regeneration and biotic stresses is underexplored. Here, we report the development of a versatile experimental system to study the impact of microbes on DNRR. Using this system, we found that bacteria inhibited root regeneration by activation of, but not limited to, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Sensing bacteria-derived flagellin 22 peptide (flg22) inhibited root regeneration by interfering with the formation of an auxin maximum at the wound site. This inhibition relies on the receptor complex that recognizes microbial patterns but may bypass the requirement of salicylic acid signaling. 
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  4. Köhler, Claudia (Ed.)
    Plants can regenerate new organs from damaged or detached tissues. In the process of de novo root regeneration (DNRR), adventitious roots are frequently formed from the wound site on a detached leaf. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key phytohormone regulating plant defenses and stress responses. The role of SA and its acting mechanisms during de novo organogenesis is still unclear. Here, we found that endogenous SA inhibited the adventitious root formation after cutting. Free SA rapidly accumulated at the wound site, which was accompanied by an activation of SA response. SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, but not NPR1, were required for DNRR. Wounding-elevated SA compromised the expression of AUX1, and subsequent transport of auxin to the wound site. A mutation in AUX1 abolished the enhanced DNRR in low SA mutants. Our work elucidates a role of SA in regulating DNRR and suggests a potential link between biotic stress and tissue regeneration. 
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  5. Abstract The goal of this study is to develop a new computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction method, aiming at improving the quality of the reconstructed images of existing methods while reducing computational costs. Existing CT reconstruction is modeled by pixel-based piecewise constant approximations of the integral equation that describes the CT projection data acquisition process. Using these approximations imposes a bottleneck model error and results in a discrete system of a large size. We propose to develop a content-adaptive unstructured grid (CAUG) based regularized CT reconstruction method to address these issues. Specifically, we design a CAUG of the image domain to sparsely represent the underlying image, and introduce a CAUG-based piecewise linear approximation of the integral equation by employing a collocation method. We further apply a regularization defined on the CAUG for the resulting ill-posed linear system, which may lead to a sparse linear representation for the underlying solution. The regularized CT reconstruction is formulated as a convex optimization problem, whose objective function consists of a weighted least square norm based fidelity term, a regularization term and a constraint term. Here, the corresponding weighted matrix is derived from the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). We then develop a SART-type preconditioned fixed-point proximity algorithm to solve the optimization problem. Convergence analysis is provided for the resulting iterative algorithm. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over several existing methods in terms of both suppressing noise and reducing computational costs. These methods include the SART without regularization and with the quadratic regularization, the traditional total variation (TV) regularized reconstruction method and the TV superiorized conjugate gradient method on the pixel grid. 
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  6. When a mixture of viscous oil and non-colloidal particles displaces air between two parallel plates, the shear-induced migration of particles leads to the gradual accumulation of particles on the advancing oil–air interface. This particle accumulation results in the fingering of an otherwise stable fluid–fluid interface. While previous works have focused on the resultant instability, one unexplored yet striking feature of the experiments is the self-similarity in the concentration profile of the accumulating particles. In this paper, we rationalise this self-similar behaviour by deriving a depth-averaged particle transport equation based on the suspension balance model, following the theoretical framework of Ramachandran ( J. Fluid Mech. , vol. 734, 2013, pp. 219–252). The solutions to the particle transport equation are shown to be self-similar with slight deviations, and in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the shear-induced migration, the advancing fluid–fluid interface and Taylor dispersion yield the self-similar and gradual accumulation of particles. 
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