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  1. Abstract Different intensities of high temperatures affect the growth of photosynthetic cells in nature. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we cultivated the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under highly controlled photobioreactor conditions and revealed systems-wide shared and unique responses to 24-hour moderate (35°C) and acute (40°C) high temperatures and subsequent recovery at 25°C. We identified previously overlooked unique elements in response to moderate high temperature. Heat at 35°C transiently arrested the cell cycle followed by partial synchronization, up-regulated transcripts/proteins involved in gluconeogenesis/glyoxylate-cycle for carbon uptake and promoted growth. But 40°C disrupted cell division and growth. Both high temperatures induced photoprotection, while 40°C distorted thylakoid/pyrenoid ultrastructure, affected the carbon concentrating mechanism, and decreased photosynthetic efficiency. We demonstrated increased transcript/protein correlation during both heat treatments and hypothesize reduced post-transcriptional regulation during heat may help efficiently coordinate thermotolerance mechanisms. During recovery after both heat treatments, especially 40°C, transcripts/proteins related to DNA synthesis increased while those involved in photosynthetic light reactions decreased. We propose down-regulating photosynthetic light reactions during DNA replication benefits cell cycle resumption by reducing ROS production. Our results provide potential targets to increase thermotolerance in algae and crops.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 6, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 21, 2023
  4. Abstract Background Estimation of the accuracy (quality) of protein structural models is important for both prediction and use of protein structural models. Deep learning methods have been used to integrate protein structure features to predict the quality of protein models. Inter-residue distances are key information for predicting protein’s tertiary structures and therefore have good potentials to predict the quality of protein structural models. However, few methods have been developed to fully take advantage of predicted inter-residue distance maps to estimate the accuracy of a single protein structural model. Result We developed an attentive 2D convolutional neural network (CNN) with channel-wise attention to take only a raw difference map between the inter-residue distance map calculated from a single protein model and the distance map predicted from the protein sequence as input to predict the quality of the model. The network comprises multiple convolutional layers, batch normalization layers, dense layers, and Squeeze-and-Excitation blocks with attention to automatically extract features relevant to protein model quality from the raw input without using any expert-curated features. We evaluated DISTEMA’s capability of selecting the best models for CASP13 targets in terms of ranking loss of GDT-TS score. The ranking loss of DISTEMA is 0.079, lower thanmore »several state-of-the-art single-model quality assessment methods. Conclusion This work demonstrates that using raw inter-residue distance information with deep learning can predict the quality of protein structural models reasonably well. DISTEMA is freely at« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 13, 2023
  6. Abstract

    The genomic imbalance caused by varying the dosage of individual chromosomes or chromosomal segments (aneuploidy) has more detrimental effects than altering the dosage of complete chromosome sets (ploidy). Previous analysis of maize (Zea mays) aneuploids revealed global modulation of gene expression both on the varied chromosome (cis) and the remainder of the genome (trans). However, little is known regarding the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) under genomic imbalance. Here, we report the impact of aneuploidy and polyploidy on the expression of miRNAs. In general,cismiRNAs in aneuploids present a predominant gene-dosage effect, whereastransmiRNAs trend toward the inverse level, although other types of responses including dosage compensation, increased effect, and decreased effect also occur. By contrast, polyploids show less differential miRNA expression than aneuploids. Significant correlations between expression levels of miRNAs and their targets are identified in aneuploids, indicating the regulatory role of miRNAs on gene expression triggered by genomic imbalance.

  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  8. Abstract New drug production, from target identification to marketing approval, takes over 12 years and can cost around $2.6 billion. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has unveiled the urgent need for more powerful computational methods for drug discovery. Here, we review the computational approaches to predicting protein–ligand interactions in the context of drug discovery, focusing on methods using artificial intelligence (AI). We begin with a brief introduction to proteins (targets), ligands (e.g. drugs) and their interactions for nonexperts. Next, we review databases that are commonly used in the domain of protein–ligand interactions. Finally, we survey and analyze the machine learning (ML) approaches implemented to predict protein–ligand binding sites, ligand-binding affinity and binding pose (conformation) including both classical ML algorithms and recent deep learning methods. After exploring the correlation between these three aspects of protein–ligand interaction, it has been proposed that they should be studied in unison. We anticipate that our review will aid exploration and development of more accurate ML-based prediction strategies for studying protein–ligand interactions.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  10. Abstract Background Driven by deep learning, inter-residue contact/distance prediction has been significantly improved and substantially enhanced ab initio protein structure prediction. Currently, most of the distance prediction methods classify inter-residue distances into multiple distance intervals instead of directly predicting real-value distances. The output of the former has to be converted into real-value distances to be used in tertiary structure prediction. Results To explore the potentials of predicting real-value inter-residue distances, we develop a multi-task deep learning distance predictor (DeepDist) based on new residual convolutional network architectures to simultaneously predict real-value inter-residue distances and classify them into multiple distance intervals. Tested on 43 CASP13 hard domains, DeepDist achieves comparable performance in real-value distance prediction and multi-class distance prediction. The average mean square error (MSE) of DeepDist’s real-value distance prediction is 0.896 Å 2 when filtering out the predicted distance ≥ 16 Å, which is lower than 1.003 Å 2 of DeepDist’s multi-class distance prediction. When distance predictions are converted into contact predictions at 8 Å threshold (the standard threshold in the field), the precision of top L/5 and L/2 contact predictions of DeepDist’s multi-class distance prediction is 79.3% and 66.1%, respectively, higher than 78.6% and 64.5% of its real-value distance prediction and the best resultsmore »in the CASP13 experiment. Conclusions DeepDist can predict inter-residue distances well and improve binary contact prediction over the existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, the predicted real-value distances can be directly used to reconstruct protein tertiary structures better than multi-class distance predictions due to the lower MSE. Finally, we demonstrate that predicting the real-value distance map and multi-class distance map at the same time performs better than predicting real-value distances alone.« less