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Creators/Authors contains: "Cho, Jeong-Hyun"

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  1. Abstract

    Graphene's emergence enables creating chiral metamaterials in helical shapes for terahertz (THz) applications, overcoming material limitations. However, practical implementation remains theoretical due to fabrication challenges. This paper introduces a dual‐component self‐assembly technique that enables creating vertically‐aligned continuous monolayer graphene helices at microscale with great flexibility and high controllability. This assembly process not only facilitates the creation of 3D microstructures, but also positions the 3D structures from a horizontal to a vertical orientation, achieving an aspect ratio (height/width) of ≈2700. As a result, an array of vertically‐aligned graphene helices is formed, reaching up to 4 mm in height, which is equivalent to 4 million times the height of monolayer graphene. The benefit of these 3D chiral structures made from graphene is their capability to infinitely extend in height, interacting with light in ways that are not possible with traditional 2D layering methods. Such an impressive height elevates a level of interaction with light that far surpasses what is achievable with traditional 2D layering methods, resulting in a notable enhancement of optical chirality properties. This approach is applicable to various 2D materials, promising advancements in innovative research and diverse applications across fields.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 28, 2025
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  3. Abstract

    Current graphene‐based plasmonic devices are restricted to 2D patterns defined on planar substrates; thus, they suffer from spatially limited 2D plasmon fields. Here, 3D graphene forming freestanding nanocylinders realized by a plasma‐triggered self‐assembly process are introduced. The graphene‐based nanocylinders induce hybridized edge (in‐plane) and radial (out‐of‐plane) coupled 3D plasmon modes stemming from their curvature, resulting in a four orders of magnitude stronger field at the openings of the cylinders than in rectangular 2D graphene ribbons. For the characterization of the 3D plasmon modes, synchrotron nanospectroscopy measurements are performed, which provides the evidence of preservation of the hybridized 3D graphene plasmons in the high precision curved nanocylinders. The distinct 3D modes introduced in this paper, provide an insight into geometry‐dependent 3D coupled plasmon modes and their ability to achieve non‐surface‐limited (volumetric) field enhancements.

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  4. Abstract

    A vast majority of existing sub‐millimeter‐scale sensors have a planar, 2D geometry as a result of conventional top‐down lithographic procedures. However, 2D sensors often suffer from restricted sensing capability, allowing only partial measurements of 3D quantities. Here, nano/microscale sensors with different geometric (1D, 2D, and 3D) configurations are reviewed to introduce their advantages and limitations when sensing changes in quantities in 3D space. This Review categorizes sensors based on their geometric configuration and sensing capabilities. Among the sensors reviewed here, the 3D configuration sensors defined on polyhedral structures are especially advantageous when sensing spatially distributed 3D quantities. The nano‐ and microscale vertex configuration forming polyhedral structures enable full 3D spatial sensing due to orthogonally aligned sensing elements. Particularly, the cubic configuration leveraged in 3D sensors offers an array of diverse applications in the field of biosensing for micro‐organisms and proteins, optical metamaterials for invisibility cloaking, 3D imaging, and low‐power remote sensing of position and angular momentum for use in microbots. Here, various 3D sensors are compared to assess the advantages of their geometry and its impact on sensing mechanisms. 3D biosensors in nature are also explored to provide vital clues for the development of novel 3D sensors.

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