skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Cho, Jin-Hee"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 4, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. Network traffic data analysis is important for securing our computing environment and data. However, analyzing network traffic data requires tremendous effort because of the complexity of continuously changing network traffic patterns. To assist the user in better understanding and analyzing the network traffic data, an interactive web-based visualization system is designed using multiple coordinated views, supporting a rich set of user interactions. For advancing the capability of analyzing network traffic data, feature extraction is considered along with uncertainty quantification to help the user make precise analyses. The system allows the user to perform a continuous visual analysis by requesting incrementally new subsets of data with updated visual representation. Case studies have been performed to determine the effectiveness of the system. The results from the case studies support that the system is well designed to understand network traffic data by identifying abnormal network traffic patterns.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. In this work, we propose an energy-adaptive moni-toring system for a solar sensor-based smart animal farm (e.g., cattle). The proposed smart farm system aims to maintain high-quality monitoring services by solar sensors with limited and fluctuating energy against a full set of cyberattack behaviors including false data injection, message dropping, or protocol non-compliance. We leverage Subjective Logic (SL) as the belief model to consider different types of uncertainties in opinions about sensed data. We develop two Deep Reinforcement Learning (D RL) schemes leveraging the design concept of uncertainty maximization in SL for DRL agents running on gateways to collect high-quality sensed data with low uncertainty and high freshness. We assess the performance of the proposed energy-adaptive smart farm system in terms of accumulated reward, monitoring error, system overload, and battery maintenance level. We compare the performance of the two DRL schemes developed (i.e., multi-agent deep Q-Iearning, MADQN, and multi-agent proximal policy optimization, MAPPO) with greedy and random baseline schemes in choosing the set of sensed data to be updated to collect high-quality sensed data to achieve resilience against attacks. Our experiments demonstrate that MAPPO with the uncertainty maximization technique outperforms its counterparts.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 4, 2023
  6. Existing adversarial algorithms for Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) have largely focused on identifying an optimal time to attack a DRL agent. However, little work has been explored in injecting efficient adversarial perturbations in DRL environments. We propose a suite of novel DRL adversarial attacks, called ACADIA, representing AttaCks Against Deep reInforcement leArning. ACADIA provides a set of efficient and robust perturbation-based adversarial attacks to disturb the DRL agent's decision-making based on novel combinations of techniques utilizing momentum, ADAM optimizer (i.e., Root Mean Square Propagation, or RMSProp), and initial randomization. These kinds of DRL attacks with novel integration of such techniques have not been studied in the existing Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) and DRL research. We consider two well-known DRL algorithms, Deep-Q Learning Network (DQN) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), under Atari games and MuJoCo where both targeted and non-targeted attacks are considered with or without the state-of-the-art defenses in DRL (i.e., RADIAL and ATLA). Our results demonstrate that the proposed ACADIA outperforms existing gradient-based counterparts under a wide range of experimental settings. ACADIA is nine times faster than the state-of-the-art Carlini & Wagner (CW) method with better performance under defenses of DRL.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 3, 2023
  7. Traditional deep neural networks (NNs) have significantly contributed to the state-of-the-art performance in the task of classification under various application domains. However, NNs have not considered inherent uncertainty in data associated with the class probabilities where misclassification under uncertainty may easily introduce high risk in decision making in real-world contexts (e.g., misclassification of objects in roads leads to serious accidents). Unlike Bayesian NN that indirectly infer uncertainty through weight uncertainties, evidential NNs (ENNs) have been recently proposed to explicitly model the uncertainty of class probabilities and use them for classification tasks. An ENN offers the formulation of the predictions of NNs as subjective opinions and learns the function by collecting an amount of evidence that can form the subjective opinions by a deterministic NN from data. However, the ENN is trained as a black box without explicitly considering inherent uncertainty in data with their different root causes, such as vacuity (i.e., uncertainty due to a lack of evidence) or dissonance (i.e., uncertainty due to conflicting evidence). By considering the multidimensional uncertainty, we proposed a novel uncertainty-aware evidential NN called WGAN-ENN (WENN) for solving an out-of-distribution (OOD) detection problem. We took a hybrid approach that combines Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network (WGAN)more »with ENNs to jointly train a model with prior knowledge of a certain class, which has high vacuity for OOD samples. Via extensive empirical experiments based on both synthetic and real-world datasets, we demonstrated that the estimation of uncertainty by WENN can significantly help distinguish OOD samples from boundary samples. WENN outperformed in OOD detection when compared with other competitive counterparts« less
  8. Using unreliable information sources generating conflicting evidence may lead to a large uncertainty, which significantly hurts the decision making process. Recently, many approaches have been taken to integrate conflicting data from multiple sources and/or fusing conflicting opinions from different entities. To explicitly deal with uncertainty, a belief model called Subjective Logic (SL), as a variant of Dumpster-Shafer Theory, has been proposed to represent subjective opinions and to merge multiple opinions by offering a rich volume of fusing operators, which have been used to solve many opinion inference problems in trust networks. However, the operators of SL are known to be lack of scalability in inferring unknown opinions from large network data as a result of the sequential procedures of merging multiple opinions. In addition, SL does not consider deriving opinions in the presence of conflicting evidence. In this work, we propose a hybrid inference method that combines SL and Probabilistic Soft Logic (PSL), namely, Collective Subjective Plus, CSL + , which is resistible to highly conflicting evidence or a lack of evidence. PSL can reason a belief in a collective manner to deal with large-scale network data, allowing high scalability based on relationships between opinions. However, PSL does not considermore »an uncertainty dimension in a subjective opinion. To take benefits from both SL and PSL, we proposed a hybrid approach called CSL + for achieving high scalability and high prediction accuracy for unknown opinions with uncertainty derived from a lack of evidence and/or conflicting evidence. Through the extensive experiments on four semi-synthetic and two real-world datasets, we showed that the CSL + outperforms the state-of-the-art belief model (i.e., SL), probabilistic inference models (i.e., PSL, CSL), and deep learning model (i.e., GCN-VAE-opinion) in terms of prediction accuracy, computational complexity, and real running time.« less
  9. Inference of unknown opinions with uncertain, adversarial (e.g., incorrect or conflicting) evidence in large datasets is not a trivial task. Without proper handling, it can easily mislead decision making in data mining tasks. In this work, we propose a highly scalable opinion inference probabilistic model, namely Adversarial Collective Opinion Inference (Adv-COI), which provides a solution to infer unknown opinions with high scalability and robustness under the presence of uncertain, adversarial evidence by enhancing Collective Subjective Logic (CSL) which is developed by combining SL and Probabilistic Soft Logic (PSL). The key idea behind the Adv-COI is to learn a model of robust ways against uncertain, adversarial evidence which is formulated as a min-max problem. We validate the out-performance of the Adv-COI compared to baseline models and its competitive counterparts under possible adversarial attacks on the logic-rule based structured data and white and black box adversarial attacks under both clean and perturbed semi-synthetic and real-world datasets in three real world applications. The results show that the Adv-COI generates the lowest mean absolute error in the expected truth probability while producing the lowest running time among all.