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  1. Abstract

    We conduct an extensive study of nonlinear localized modes (NLMs), which are temporally periodic and spatially localized structures, in a two-dimensional array of repelling magnets. In our experiments, we arrange a lattice in a hexagonal configuration with a light-mass defect, and we harmonically drive the center of the chain with a tunable excitation frequency, amplitude, and angle. We use a damped, driven variant of a vector Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou lattice to model our experimental setup. Despite the idealized nature of this model, we obtain good qualitative agreement between theory and experiments for a variety of dynamical behaviors. We find that the spatial decay is direction-dependent and that drive amplitudes along fundamental displacement axes lead to nonlinear resonant peaks in frequency continuations that are similar to those that occur in one-dimensional damped, driven lattices. However, we observe numerically that driving along other directions results in asymmetric NLMs that bifurcate from the main solution branch, which consists of symmetric NLMs. We also demonstrate both experimentally and numerically that solutions that appear to be time-quasiperiodic bifurcate from the branch of symmetric time-periodic NLMs.

     
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  2. The principles underlying the art of origami paper folding can be applied to design sophisticated metamaterials with unique mechanical properties. By exploiting the flat crease patterns that determine the dynamic folding and unfolding motion of origami, we are able to design an origami-based metamaterial that can form rarefaction solitary waves. Our analytical, numerical, and experimental results demonstrate that this rarefaction solitary wave overtakes initial compressive strain waves, thereby causing the latter part of the origami structure to feel tension first instead of compression under impact. This counterintuitive dynamic mechanism can be used to create a highly efficient—yet reusable—impact mitigating system without relying on material damping, plasticity, or fracture. 
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