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  1. Abstract

    We provide one of the most comprehensive metallicity studies atz∼ 4 by analyzing the UV/optical Hubble Space Telescope photometry and rest-frame Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FORS2 UV and VLT/XSHOOTER optical spectra of J0332−3557, a gravitationally lensed galaxy magnified by a factor of 20. With a 5σdetection of the auroral Oiii]λ1666 line, we are able to derive a direct gas metallicity estimate for our target. We findZgas=12+log(O/H)=8.26±0.06, which is compatible with an increase of both the gas fraction and the outflow metal loading factor fromz∼ 0 toz∼ 4. J0332−3557 is the most metal-rich individual galaxy atz∼ 4 for which the C/O ratio has been measured. We derive a low log(C/O) = −1.02 ± 0.2, which suggests that J0332−3557 is in the early stages of interstellar medium carbon enrichment driven mostly by massive stars. The low C/O abundance also indicates that J0332−3557 is characterized by a low star formation efficiency, higher yields of oxygen, and longer burst duration. We find that EWCIII]1906,9is as low as ∼3 Å, and the main drivers of the low EWCIII]1906,9are the higher gas metallicity and the low C/O abundance. J0332−3557 is characterized by one diffuse and two more compact regions ∼1 kpc in size. We find that the carbon emission mostly originates in the compact knots. Our study on J0332−3557 serves as an anchor for studies investigating the evolution of metallicity and C/O abundance across different redshifts.

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  2. Abstract Detailed analyses of high-redshift galaxies are challenging because these galaxies are faint, but this difficulty can be overcome with gravitational lensing, in which the magnification of the flux enables spectroscopy with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). We present the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) spectrum of the newly discovered z = 2.79 lensed galaxy SDSS J1059+4251. With an observed magnitude F814W = 18.8 and a magnification factor μ = 31 ± 3, J1059+4251 is both highly magnified and intrinsically luminous, about two magnitudes brighter than M UV * at z ∼ 2–3. With a stellar mass M * = (3.22 ± 0.20) × 10 10 M ⊙ , star formation rate SFR = 50 ± 7 M ⊙ yr −1 , and stellar metallicity Z * ≃ 0.15–0.5 Z ⊙ , J1059+4251 is typical of bright star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. Thanks to the high S/N and the spectral resolution of the ESI spectrum, we are able to separate the interstellar and stellar features and derive properties that would be inaccessible without the aid of the lensing. We find evidence of a gas outflow with speeds up to −1000 km s −1 , and of an inflow that is probably due to accreting material seen along a favorable line of sight. We measure relative elemental abundances from the interstellar absorption lines and find that α -capture elements are overabundant compared to iron-peak elements, suggestive of rapid star formation. However, this trend may also be affected by dust depletion. Thanks to the high data quality, our results represent a reliable step forward in the characterization of typical galaxies at early cosmic epochs. 
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