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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that plant water-use efficiency (WUE)—the ratio of carbon assimilation to water loss—has increased in recent decades. Although rising atmospheric CO 2 has been proposed as the principal cause, the underlying physiological mechanisms are still being debated, and implications for the global water cycle remain uncertain. Here, we addressed this gap using 30-y tree ring records of carbon and oxygen isotope measurements and basal area increment from 12 species in 8 North American mature temperate forests. Our goal was to separate the contributions of enhanced photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance to WUE trends and to assess consistency between multiple commonly used methods for estimating WUE. Our results show that tree ring-derived estimates of increases in WUE are consistent with estimates from atmospheric measurements and predictions based on an optimal balancing of carbon gains and water costs, but are lower than those based on ecosystem-scale flux observations. Although both physiological mechanisms contributed to rising WUE, enhanced photosynthesis was widespread, while reductions in stomatal conductance were modest and restricted to species that experienced moisture limitations. This finding challenges the hypothesis that rising WUE in forests is primarily the result of widespread, CO 2 -induced reductions in stomatal conductance.
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  5. Abstract. Plant transpiration links physiological responses ofvegetation to water supply and demand with hydrological, energy, and carbonbudgets at the land–atmosphere interface. However, despite being the mainland evaporative flux at the global scale, transpiration and its response toenvironmental drivers are currently not well constrained by observations.Here we introduce the first global compilation of whole-plant transpirationdata from sap flow measurements (SAPFLUXNET,, last access: 8 June 2021).We harmonized and quality-controlled individual datasets supplied bycontributors worldwide in a semi-automatic data workflow implemented in theR programming language. Datasets include sub-daily time series of sap flowand hydrometeorological drivers for one or more growing seasons, as well asmetadata on the stand characteristics, plant attributes, and technicaldetails of the measurements. SAPFLUXNET contains 202 globally distributeddatasets with sap flow time series for 2714 plants, mostly trees, of 174species. SAPFLUXNET has a broad bioclimatic coverage, withwoodland/shrubland and temperate forest biomes especially well represented(80 % of the datasets). The measurements cover a wide variety of standstructural characteristics and plant sizes. The datasets encompass theperiod between 1995 and 2018, with 50 % of the datasets being at least 3 years long. Accompanying radiation and vapour pressure deficit data areavailable for most of the datasets, while on-site soil water content isavailable for 56 % of the datasets. Manymore »datasets contain data for speciesthat make up 90 % or more of the total stand basal area, allowing theestimation of stand transpiration in diverse ecological settings. SAPFLUXNETadds to existing plant trait datasets, ecosystem flux networks, and remotesensing products to help increase our understanding of plant water use,plant responses to drought, and ecohydrological processes. SAPFLUXNET version0.1.5 is freely available from the Zenodo repository (; Poyatos et al., 2020a). The“sapfluxnetr” R package – designed to access, visualize, and processSAPFLUXNET data – is available from CRAN.« less
  6. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole has measured the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux up to ~PeV energies and is starting to identify first point source candidates. The next generation facility, IceCube-Gen2, aims at extending the accessible energy range to EeV in order to measure the continuation of the astrophysical spectrum, to identify neutrino sources, and to search for a cosmogenic neutrino flux. As part of IceCube-Gen2, a radio array is foreseen that is sensitive to detect Askaryan emission of neutrinos beyond ~30 PeV. Surface and deep antenna stations have different benefits in terms of effective area, resolution, and the capability to reject backgrounds from cosmic-ray air showers and may be combined to reach the best sensitivity. The optimal detector configuration is still to be identified. This contribution presents the full-array simulation efforts for a combination of deep and surface antennas, and compares different design options with respect to their sensitivity to fulfill the science goals of IceCube-Gen2.