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  1. Abstract Oceanic ctenophores are widespread predators on pelagic zooplankton. While data on coastal ctenophores often show strong top-down predatory impacts in their ecosystems, differing morphologies, prey capture mechanisms and behaviors of oceanic species preclude the use of coastal data to draw conclusion on oceanic species. We used high-resolution imaging methods both in situ and in the laboratory to quantify interactions of Ocyropsis spp. with natural copepod prey. We confirmed that Ocyropsis spp. uses muscular lobe contraction and a prehensile mouth to capture prey, which is unique amongst ctenophores. This feeding mechanism results in high overall capture success whether encountering single or multiple prey between the lobes (71 and 81% respectively). However, multiple prey require several attempts for successful capture whereas single prey are often captured on the first attempt. Digestion of adult copepods takes 44 min at 25 °C and does not vary with ctenophore size. At high natural densities, we estimate that Ocyropsis spp. consume up to 40% of the daily copepod standing stock. This suggests that, when numerous, Ocyropsis spp. can exert strong top-down control on oceanic copepod populations. At more common densities, these animals consume only a small proportion of the daily copepod standing stock. However, compared to data from pelagic fishes and oceanic medusae, Ocyropsis spp. appears to be the dominant copepod predator in this habitat. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. A narrowband sodium resonance wind-temperature lidar (SRWTL) has been deployed at Poker Flat Research Range, Chatanika, Alaska (PFRR, 65° N, 147° W). Based on the Weber narrowband SRWTL, the PFRR SRWTL transmitter was upgraded with a state-of-the-art solid-state tunable diode laser as the seed laser. The PFRR SRWTL currently makes simultaneous measurements in the zenith and 20° off-zenith towards the north with two transmitted beams and two telescopes. Initial results for both nighttime and daytime measurements are presented. We review the performance of the PFRR SRWTL in terms of seven previous and currently operating SRWTLs. The transmitted power from the pulsed dye amplifier (PDA) is comparable with other SRWTL systems (900 mW). However, while the efficiency of the seeding and frequency shifting is comparable to other SRWTLs the efficiency of the pumping is lower. The uncertainties of temperature and wind measurements induced by photon noise at the peak of the layer with a 5 min, 1 km resolution are estimated to be ~1 K and 2 m/s for nighttime conditions, and 10 K and 6 m/s for daytime conditions. The relative efficiency of the zenith receiver is comparable to other SRWTLs (90–97%), while the efficiency of the north off-zenith receiver needs further optimization. An upgrade of the PFRR SRWTL to a full three-beam system with zenith, northward and eastward measurements is in progress. 
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  3. Abstract

    On the night of 18–19 October 2018, sodium resonance lidar measurements show the presence of overturning in the mesospheric sodium layer. Two independent tracers, sodium mixing ratio and potential temperature, derived from resonance and Rayleigh lidar measurements, reveal that vertical spreading of the sodium mixing ratio contours and a layer of convective instability coincide with this overturning. Analysis of lidar measurements also reveals the presence of gravity waves that propagate upward, are saturated, and dissipate at the height of the convective instability. The vertical spreading is analyzed in terms of turbulent diffusive transport using a model based on material continuity of sodium. Estimates of the turbulent eddy diffusion coefficient, K, and energy dissipation rate,εare derived from the transport model. The energy dissipated by the gravity waves is also calculated and found to be sufficient to generate the turbulence. We consider three other examples of overturning, instability and spreading on the nights of: 17–18 February 2009, 25–26 January 2015, and 8–9 October 2018. For all four events we find that the values of K (∼1,000 m2/s) are larger and the values ofε(∼10–100 mW/kg) are of similar magnitude to those values typically reported by ionization gauge measurements. These examples also reveal that higher levels of turbulent mixing are consistently found in regions of lower stability.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Though the Kelvin‐Helmholtz instability (KHI) has been extensively observed in the mesosphere, where breaking gravity waves produce the conditions required for instability, little has been done to describe quantitatively this phenomenon in detail in the mesopause and lower thermosphere, which are associated with the long‐lived shears at the base of this statically stable region. Using trimethylaluminum (TMA) released from two sounding rockets launched on 26 January 2018, from Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska, the KHI was observed in great detail above 100 km. Two sets of rocket measurements, made 30 min apart, show strong winds (predominantly meridional and up to 150 ms−1) and large total shears (90 ms−1 km−1). The geomagnetic activity was low in the hours before the launches, confirming that the enhanced shears that triggered the KHI are not a result of the E‐region auroral jets. The four‐dimensional (three‐dimensional plus time) estimation of KHI billow features resulted in a wavelength, eddy diameter, and vertical length scale of 9.8, 5.2, and 3.8 km, respectively, centered at 102‐km altitude. The vertical and horizontal root‐mean‐square velocities measured 29.2 and 42.5 ms−1, respectively. Although the wind structure persisted, the KHI structure changed significantly with time over the interval separating the two launches, being present only in the first launch. The rapid dispersal of the TMA cloud in the instability region was evidence of enhanced turbulent mixing. The analysis of the Reynolds and Froude numbers (Re = 7.2 × 103andFr = 0.29, respectively) illustrates the presence of turbulence and weak stratification of the flow.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Addition of the bipyridyl‐embedded cycloparaphenylene nanohoop bipy[9]CPP to [Fe{H2B(pyz)2}] (pyz=pyrazolyl) produces the distorted octahedral complex [Fe(bipy[9]CPP){H2B(pyz)2}2] (1). The molecular structure of1shows that the nanohoop ligand contains a non‐planar bipy unit. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate spin‐crossover (SCO) behaviour with aT1/2of 130 K, lower than that of 160 K observed with the related compound [Fe(bipy){H2B(pyz)2}2] (2), which contains a conventional bipy ligand. A computational study of1and2reveals that the curvature of the nanohoop leads to the different SCO properties, suggesting that the SCO behaviour of iron(II) can be tuned by varying the size and diameter of the nanohoop.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Addition of the bipyridyl‐embedded cycloparaphenylene nanohoop bipy[9]CPP to [Fe{H2B(pyz)2}] (pyz=pyrazolyl) produces the distorted octahedral complex [Fe(bipy[9]CPP){H2B(pyz)2}2] (1). The molecular structure of1shows that the nanohoop ligand contains a non‐planar bipy unit. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate spin‐crossover (SCO) behaviour with aT1/2of 130 K, lower than that of 160 K observed with the related compound [Fe(bipy){H2B(pyz)2}2] (2), which contains a conventional bipy ligand. A computational study of1and2reveals that the curvature of the nanohoop leads to the different SCO properties, suggesting that the SCO behaviour of iron(II) can be tuned by varying the size and diameter of the nanohoop.

     
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