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Creators/Authors contains: "Cotta, Leonardo"

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  1. Graph neural networks (GNNs) have limited expressive power, failing to represent many graph classes correctly. While more expressive graph representation learning (GRL) alternatives can distinguish some of these classes, they are significantly harder to implement, may not scale well, and have not been shown to outperform well-tuned GNNs in real-world tasks. Thus, devising simple, scalable, and expressive GRL architectures that also achieve real-world improvements remains an open challenge. In this work, we show the extent to which graph reconstruction---reconstructing a graph from its subgraphs---can mitigate the theoretical and practical problems currently faced by GRL architectures. First, we leverage graph reconstruction to build two new classes of expressive graph representations. Secondly, we show how graph reconstruction boosts the expressive power of any GNN architecture while being a (provably) powerful inductive bias for invariances to vertex removals. Empirically, we show how reconstruction can boost GNN's expressive power---while maintaining its invariance to permutations of the vertices---by solving seven graph property tasks not solvable by the original GNN. Further, we demonstrate how it boosts state-of-the-art GNN's performance across nine real-world benchmark datasets.
  2. Existing Graph Neural Network (GNN) methods that learn inductive unsupervised graph representations focus on learning node and edge representations by predicting observed edges in the graph. Although such approaches have shown advances in downstream node classification tasks, they are ineffective in jointly representing larger k-node sets, k > 2. We propose MHM-GNN, an inductive unsupervised graph representation approach that combines joint k-node representations with energy-based models (hypergraph Markov networks) and GNNs. To address the intractability of the loss that arises from this combination, we endow our optimization with a loss upper bound using a finite-sample unbiased Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimator. Our experiments show that the unsupervised MHM-GNN representations of MHM-GNN produce better unsupervised representations than existing approaches from the literature.