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  1. Abstract

    Matched-filtering detection techniques for gravitational-wave (GW) signals in ground-based interferometers rely on having well-modeled templates of the GW emission. Such techniques have been traditionally used in searches for compact binary coalescences (CBCs), and have been employed in all known GW detections so far. However, interesting science cases aside from compact mergers do not yet have accurate enough modeling to make matched filtering possible, including core-collapse supernovae and sources where stochasticity may be involved. Therefore the development of techniques to identify sources of these types is of significant interest. In this paper, we present a method of anomaly detection based on deep recurrent autoencoders to enhance the search region to unmodeled transients. We use a semi-supervised strategy that we name “Gravitational Wave Anomalous Knowledge” (GWAK). While the semi-supervised nature of the problem comes with a cost in terms of accuracy as compared to supervised techniques, there is a qualitative advantage in generalizing experimental sensitivity beyond pre-computed signal templates. We construct a low-dimensional embedded space using the GWAK method, capturing the physical signatures of distinct signals on each axis of the space. By introducing signal priors that capture some of the salient features of GW signals, we allow for the recovery of sensitivity even when an unmodeled anomaly is encountered. We show that regions of the GWAK space can identify CBCs, detector glitches and also a variety of unmodeled astrophysical sources.

     
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  2. An advanced LIGO and Virgo’s third observing run brought another binary neutron star merger (BNS) and the first neutron-star black hole mergers. While no confirmed kilonovae were identified in conjunction with any of these events, continued improvements of analyses surrounding GW170817 allow us to project constraints on the Hubble Constant (H0), the Galactic enrichment fromr-process nucleosynthesis, and ultra-dense matter possible from forthcoming events. Here, we describe the expected constraints based on the latest expected event rates from the international gravitational-wave network and analyses of GW170817. We show the expected detection rate of gravitational waves and their counterparts, as well as how sensitive potential constraints are to the observed numbers of counterparts. We intend this analysis as support for the community when creating scientifically driven electromagnetic follow-up proposals. During the next observing run O4, we predict an annual detection rate of electromagnetic counterparts from BNS of0.430.26+0.58(1.971.2+2.68) for the Zwicky Transient Facility (Rubin Observatory).

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 21, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The multi-messenger detection of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817, the corresponding kilonova AT2017gfo and the short gamma-ray burst GRB170817A, as well as the observed afterglow has delivered a scientific breakthrough. For an accurate interpretation of all these different messengers, one requires robust theoretical models that describe the emitted gravitational-wave, the electromagnetic emission, and dense matter reliably. In addition, one needs efficient and accurate computational tools to ensure a correct cross-correlation between the models and the observational data. For this purpose, we have developed the Nuclear-physics and Multi-Messenger Astrophysics framework NMMA. The code allows incorporation of nuclear-physics constraints at low densities as well as X-ray and radio observations of isolated neutron stars. In previous works, the NMMA code has allowed us to constrain the equation of state of supranuclear dense matter, to measure the Hubble constant, and to compare dense-matter physics probed in neutron-star mergers and in heavy-ion collisions, and to classify electromagnetic observations and perform model selection. Here, we show an extension of the NMMA code as a first attempt of analyzing the gravitational-wave signal, the kilonova, and the gamma-ray burst afterglow simultaneously. Incorporating all available information, we estimate the radius of a 1.4Mneutron star to be$$R=11.9{8}_{-0.40}^{+0.35}$$R=11.980.40+0.35km.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. ABSTRACT

    The upcoming Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will detect a large gravitational-wave foreground of Galactic white dwarf binaries. These sources are exceptional for their probable detection at electromagnetic wavelengths, some long before LISA flies. Studies in both gravitational and electromagnetic waves will yield strong constraints on system parameters not achievable through measurements of one messenger alone. In this work, we present a Bayesian inference pipeline and simulation suite in which we study potential constraints on binaries in a variety of configurations. We show how using LISA detections and parameter estimation can significantly improve constraints on system parameters when used as a prior for the electromagnetic analyses. We also provide rules of thumb for how current measurements will benefit from LISA measurements in the future.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Using the Zwicky Transient Facility, in 2021 February we identified the first known outburst of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1859+226 since its discovery in 1999. The outburst was visible at X-ray, UV, and optical wavelengths for less than 20 days, substantially shorter than its full outburst of 320 days in 1999, and the observed peak luminosity was 2 orders of magnitude lower. Its peak bolometric luminosity was only 2 × 1035erg s−1, implying an Eddington fraction of about 3 × 10−4. The source remained in the hard spectral state throughout the outburst. From optical spectroscopy measurements we estimate an outer disk radius of 1011cm. The low observed X-ray luminosity is not sufficient to irradiate the entire disk, but we observe a surprising exponential decline in the X-ray light curve. These observations highlight the potential of optical and infrared synoptic surveys to discover low-luminosity activity from X-ray transients.

     
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  6. The recent application of neural network algorithms to problems in gravitational-wave physics invites the study of how best to build production-ready applications on top of them. By viewing neural networks not as standalone models, but as components or functions in larger data processing pipelines, we can apply lessons learned from both traditional software development practices as well as successful deep learning applications from the private sector. This paper highlights challenges presented by straightforward but naïve deployment strategies for deep learning models, and identifies solutions to them gleaned from these sources. It then presents HERMES, a library of tools for implementing these solutions, and describes how HERMES is being used to develop a particular deep learning application which will be deployed during the next data collection run of the International Gravitational-Wave Observatories. 
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  7. Abstract

    Electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational-wave detections is very resource intensive, taking up hours of limited observation time on dozens of telescopes. Creating more efficient schedules for follow-up will lead to a commensurate increase in counterpart location efficiency without using more telescope time. Widely used in operations research and telescope scheduling, mixed-integer linear programming is a strong candidate to produce these higher-efficiency schedules, as it can make use of powerful commercial solvers that find globally optimal solutions to provided problems. We detail a new target-of-opportunity scheduling algorithm designed with Zwicky Transient Facility in mind that uses mixed-integer linear programming. We compare its performance togwemopt, the tuned heuristic scheduler used by the Zwicky Transient Facility and other facilities during the third LIGO–Virgo gravitational-wave observing run. This new algorithm uses variable-length observing blocks to enforce cadence requirements and to ensure field observability, along with having a secondary optimization step to minimize slew time. We show that by employing a hybrid method utilizing both this scheduler andgwemopt, the previous scheduler used, in concert, we can achieve an average improvement in detection efficiency of 3%–11% overgwemoptalone for a simulated binary neutron star merger data set consistent with LIGO–Virgo’s third observing run, highlighting the potential of mixed-integer target of opportunity schedulers for future multimessenger follow-up surveys.

     
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