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  1. In recent decades, more than 100 different mechanophores with a broad range of activation forces have been developed. For various applications of mechanophores in polymer materials, it is crucial to selectively activate the mechanophores with high efficiency, avoiding nonspecific bond scission of the material. In this study, we embedded cyclobutane-based mechanophore cross-linkers (I and II) with varied activation forces (fa) in the first network of the double network hydrogels and quantitively investigated the activation selectivity and efficiency of these mechanophores. Our findings revealed that cross-linker I, with a lower activation force relative to the bonds in the polymer main chain (fa-I/fa-chain = 0.8 nN/3.4 nN), achieved efficient activation with 100% selectivity. Conversely, an increase of the activation force of mechanophore II (fa-II/fa-chain = 2.5 nN/3.4 nN) led to a significant decrease of its activation efficiency, accompanied by a substantial number of nonspecific bond scission events. Furthermore, with the coexistence of two cross-linkers, significantly different activation forces resulted in the almost complete suppression of the higher-force one (i.e., I and III, fa-I/fa-III = 0.8 nN/3.4 nN), while similar activation forces led to simultaneous activations with moderate efficiencies (i.e., I and IV, fa-I/fa-IV = 0.8 nN/1.6 nN). These findings provide insights into the prevention of nonspecific bond rupture during mechanophore activation and enhance our understanding of the damage mechanism within polymer networks when using mechanophores as detectors. Besides, it establishes a principle for combining different mechanophores to design multiple mechanoresponsive functional materials. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2025
  2. Second row elements in small- and medium-rings modulate strain. Herein we report the synthesis of two novel oligosilyl-containing cycloalkynes that exhibit angle-strain, as observed by X-ray crystallography. However, the angle-strained sila-cyclooctynes are sluggish participants in cycloadditions with benzyl azide. A distortion-interaction model analysis based on density functional theory calculations was performed. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2025
  3. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is a versatile reagent for material transformation, with applications in self-immolative polymers, remodeled siloxanes, and degradable polymers. The responsive in situ generation of HF in materials therefore holds promise for new classes of adaptive material systems. Here, we report the mechanochemically coupled generation of HF from alkoxy-gem-difluorocyclopropane (gDFC) mechanophores derived from the addition of difluorocarbene to enol ethers. Production of HF involves an initial mechanochemically assisted rearrangement of gDFC mechanophore to α-fluoro allyl ether whose regiochemistry involves preferential migration of fluoride to the alkoxy-substituted carbon, and ab initio steered molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the observed selectivity and offer insights into the mechanism. When the alkoxy gDFC mechanophore is derived from poly(dihydrofuran), the α-fluoro allyl ether undergoes subsequent hydrolysis to generate 1 equiv of HF and cleave the polymer chain. The hydrolysis is accelerated via acid catalysis, leading to self-amplifying HF generation and concomitant polymer degradation. The mechanically generated HF can be used in combination with fluoride indicators to generate an optical response and to degrade polybutadiene with embedded HF-cleavable silyl ethers (11 mol %). The alkoxy-gDFC mechanophore thus provides a mechanically coupled mechanism of releasing HF for polymer remodeling pathways that complements previous thermally driven mechanisms. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 10, 2025
  4. Polymers that release small molecules in response to mechanical force are promising candidates as next-generation on-demand delivery systems. Despite advancements in the development of mechanophores for releasing diverse payloads through careful molecular design, the availability of scaffolds capable of discharging biomedically significant cargos in substantial quantities remains scarce. In this report, we detail a nonscissile mechanophore built from an 8-thiabicyclo[3.2.1]octane 8,8-dioxide (TBO) motif that releases one equivalent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from each repeat unit. The TBO mechanophore exhibits high thermal stability but is activated mechanochemically using solution ultrasonication in either organic solvent or aqueous media with up to 63% efficiency, equating to 206 molecules of SO2 released per 143.3 kDa chain. We quantified the mechanochemical reactivity of TBO by single-molecule force spectroscopy and resolved its single-event activation. The force-coupled rate constant for TBO opening reaches ∼9.0 s–1 at ∼1520 pN, and each reaction of a single TBO domain releases a stored length of ∼0.68 nm. We investigated the mechanism of TBO activation using ab initio steered molecular dynamic simulations and rationalized the observed stereoselectivity. These comprehensive studies of the TBO mechanophore provide a mechanically coupled mechanism of multi-SO2 release from one polymer chain, facilitating the translation of polymer mechanochemistry to potential biomedical applications. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 17, 2025
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 31, 2025
  6. Flexible and lightweight sensors can assess their environment for applications that include wearables for health monitoring and soft robotics.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 19, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 11, 2024
  9. Abstract

    Allosteric control of reaction thermodynamics is well understood, but the mechanisms by which changes in local geometries of receptor sites lower activation reaction barriers in electronically uncoupled, remote reaction moieties remain relatively unexplored. Here we report a molecular scaffold in which the rate of thermal E-to-Z isomerization of an alkene increases by a factor of as much as 104in response to fast binding of a metal ion to a remote receptor site. A mechanochemical model of the olefin coupled to a compressive harmonic spring reproduces the observed acceleration quantitatively, adding the studied isomerization to the very few reactions demonstrated to be sensitive to extrinsic compressive force. The work validates experimentally the generalization of mechanochemical kinetics to compressive loads and demonstrates that the formalism of force-coupled reactivity offers a productive framework for the quantitative analysis of the molecular basis of allosteric control of reaction kinetics. Important differences in the effects of compressive vs. tensile force on the kinetic stabilities of molecules are discussed.

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  10. Plant virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) offer a bioinspired approach to the delivery of drugs and imaging agents. The chemical addressability, biocompatibility, and scalable manufacturability of VNPs make them a promising alternative to synthetic delivery platforms. However, VNPs, just like other proteinaceous or synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), are readily recognized and cleared by the immune system and mechanisms such as opsonization and phagocytosis. Shielding strategies, such as PEGylation, are commonly used to mitigate premature NP clearance. Here, we investigated polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings on the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which was used as a model nanocarrier system. Specifically, we evaluated the effects of linear and multivalent PEG coatings at varying chain lengths on serum protein adsorption, antibody recognition, and macrophage uptake. Linear and multivalent PEGs of molecular weights 2,000 and 5,000 Da were successfully grafted onto the TMV at ≈ 20%–60% conjugation efficiencies, and the degree of cross-linking as a function of PEG valency and length was determined. PEGylation resulted in the modulation of TMV–macrophage interactions and reduced corona formation as well as antibody recognition. Linear and multivalent PEG 5,000 formulations (but not PEG 2,000 formulations) reduced α-TMV antibody recognition, whereas shorter, multivalent PEG coatings significantly reduced α-PEG recognition—this highlights an interesting interplay between the NP and the PEG itself in potential antigenicity and should be an important consideration in PEGylation strategies. This work provides insight into the PEGylation of VNPs, which may improve the possibility of their implementation in clinical applications. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 8, 2024