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  1. Key Points A framework merging unsupervised clustering and supervised convolutional neural network (CNN) for lightning classification is developed Clustering of positive polarity energetic lightning radio pulses (>150 kA) identifies three processes: +EIPs (6%–7%), +NBEs, and +CGs CNNs detect 95.2% of manually identified +EIPs with up to 98.7% accuracy, enabling studying EIP‐TGF link with lower peak current (>50 kA) 
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  2. There is a trade-off between the sparseness of an absorber array and its sound absorption imposed by wave physics. Here, near-perfect absorption (99% absorption) is demonstrated when the spatial period of monopole-dipole resonators is close to one working wavelength (95% of the wavelength). The condition for perfect absorption is to render degenerate monopole-dipole resonators critically coupled. Frequency domain simulations, eigenfrequency simulations, and the coupled mode theory are utilized to demonstrate the acoustic performances and the underlying physics. The sparse-resonator-based sound absorber could greatly benefit noise control with air flow and this study could also have implications for electromagnetic wave absorbers. 
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  3. This paper investigates the mechanism of self-stabilizing, three-dimensional Mie particle manipulation in water via an acoustic tweezer with a single transducer. A carefully designed acoustic lens is attached to the transducer to form an acoustic vortex, which provides angular momentum on the trapped polymer sphere and leads to a fast-spinning motion. The sphere can find equilibrium positions spontaneously during the manipulation by slightly adjusting its relative position, angular velocity, and spinning axis. The spinning motion greatly enhances the low-pressure recirculation region around the sphere, resulting in a larger pressure induced drag. Simultaneously, the Magnus effect is induced to generate an additional lateral force. The spinning motion of the trapped sphere links the acoustic radiation force and hydrodynamic forces together, so that the sphere can spontaneously achieve new force balance and follow the translational motion of the acoustic tweezer. Non-spherical objects can also be manipulated by this acoustic tweezer.

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  4. Key Points Optical, very high frequency, and low‐frequency observations are combined to analyze the transition from upward to horizontal propagation of initial in‐cloud lightning A drop in the optical blue‐to‐red ratio indicates when the dominant illumination process changes from streamers to likely stepped leader We find for in‐cloud lightning that the upward initial leader and the horizontal stepped leader could be physically different 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Acoustic tweezers use ultrasound for contact-free, bio-compatible, and precise manipulation of particles from millimeter to submicrometer scale. In microfluidics, acoustic tweezers typically use an array of sources to create standing wave patterns that can trap and move objects in ways constrained by the limited complexity of the acoustic wave field. Here, we demonstrate spatially complex particle trapping and manipulation inside a boundary-free chamber using a single pair of sources and an engineered structure outside the chamber that we call a shadow waveguide. The shadow waveguide creates a tightly confined, spatially complex acoustic field inside the chamber without requiring any interior structure that would interfere with net flow or transport. Altering the input signals to the two sources creates trapped particle motion along an arbitrary path defined by the shadow waveguide. Particle trapping, particle manipulation and transport, and Thouless pumping are experimentally demonstrated. 
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