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  1. techniques to protect user data privacy. A common way for utilizing private data under DP is to take an input dataset and synthesize a new dataset that preserves features of the input dataset while satisfying DP. A trade-off always exists between the strength of privacy protection and the utility of the final output: stronger privacy protection requires larger randomness, so the outputs usually have a larger variance and can be far from optimal. In this paper, we summarize our proposed metric for the NIST “A Better Meter Stick for Differential Privacy” competition [26], MarGinal Difference (MGD), for measuring the utility of a synthesized dataset. Our metric is based on earth mover distance. We introduce new features in our metric so that it is not affected by some small random noise that is unavoidable in the DP context but focuses more on the significant difference. We show that our metric can reflect the range query error better compared with other existing metrics. We introduce an efficient computation method based on the min-cost flow to alleviate the high computation cost of the earth mover’s distance. 
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  2. The goal of the SunPy project is to facilitate and promote the use and development of community-led, free, and open source data analysis software for solar physics based on the scientific Python environment. The project achieves this goal by developing and maintaining the sunpy core package and supporting an ecosystem of affiliated packages. This paper describes the first official stable release (version 1.0) of the core package, as well as the project organization and infrastructure. This paper concludes with a discussion of the future of the SunPy project. 
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