skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Daraio, Chiara"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. A strategy for developing irregular materials can lead to a wide range of functional properties.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 26, 2023
  2. An object’s interior material properties, while invisible to the human eye, determine motion observed on its surface. We propose an approach that esti- mates heterogeneous material properties of an object directly from a monoc- ular video of its surface vibrations. Specifically, we estimate Young’s modulus and density throughout a 3D object with known geometry. Knowledge of how these values change across the object is useful for characterizing defects and simulating how the object will interact with different environments. Traditional non-destructive testing approaches, which generally estimate homogenized material properties or the presence of defects, are expensive and use specialized instruments. We propose an approach that leverages monocular video to (1) measure an object’s sub-pixel motion and decompose this motion into image-space modes, and (2) directly infer spatially-varying Young’s modulus and density values from the observed image-space modes. On both simulated and real videos, we demonstrate that our approach is able to image material properties simply by analyzing surface motion. In particular, our method allows us to identify unseen defects on a 2D drum head from real, high-speed video.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Mechanical cloaks are materials engineered to manipulate the elastic response around objects to make them indistinguishable from their homogeneous surroundings. Typically, methods based on material-parameter transformations are used to design optical, thermal, and electric cloaks. However, they are not applicable in designing mechanical cloaks, since continuum-mechanics equations are not form invariant under general coordinate transformations. As a result, existing design methods for mechanical cloaks have so far been limited to a narrow selection of voids with simple shapes. To address this challenge, we present a systematic, data-driven design approach to create mechanical cloaks composed of aperiodic metamaterials using a large precomputed unit cell database. Our method is flexible to allow the design of cloaks with various boundary conditions, multiple loadings, different shapes and numbers of voids, and different homogeneous surroundings. It enables a concurrent optimization of both topology and properties distribution of the cloak. Compared to conventional fixed-shape solutions, this results in an overall better cloaking performance and offers unparalleled versatility. Experimental measurements on additively manufactured structures further confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Our research illustrates the benefits of data-driven approaches in quickly responding to new design scenarios and resolving the computational challenge associated with multiscale designs ofmore »functional structures. It could be generalized to accommodate other applications that require heterogeneous property distribution, such as soft robots and implants design.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 29, 2023
  4. Moreno, Yamir (Ed.)
    Testing, contact tracing, and isolation (TTI) is an epidemic management and control approach that is difficult to implement at scale because it relies on manual tracing of contacts. Exposure notification apps have been developed to digitally scale up TTI by harnessing contact data obtained from mobile devices; however, exposure notification apps provide users only with limited binary information when they have been directly exposed to a known infection source. Here we demonstrate a scalable improvement to TTI and exposure notification apps that uses data assimilation (DA) on a contact network. Network DA exploits diverse sources of health data together with the proximity data from mobile devices that exposure notification apps rely upon. It provides users with continuously assessed individual risks of exposure and infection, which can form the basis for targeting individual contact interventions. Simulations of the early COVID-19 epidemic in New York City are used to establish proof-of-concept. In the simulations, network DA identifies up to a factor 2 more infections than contact tracing when both harness the same contact data and diagnostic test data. This remains true even when only a relatively small fraction of the population uses network DA. When a sufficiently large fraction of the populationmore »(≳ 75%) uses network DA and complies with individual contact interventions, targeting contact interventions with network DA reduces deaths by up to a factor 4 relative to TTI. Network DA can be implemented by expanding the computational backend of existing exposure notification apps, thus greatly enhancing their capabilities. Implemented at scale, it has the potential to precisely and effectively control future epidemics while minimizing economic disruption.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 23, 2023
  5. Abstract

    We conduct an extensive study of nonlinear localized modes (NLMs), which are temporally periodic and spatially localized structures, in a two-dimensional array of repelling magnets. In our experiments, we arrange a lattice in a hexagonal configuration with a light-mass defect, and we harmonically drive the center of the chain with a tunable excitation frequency, amplitude, and angle. We use a damped, driven variant of a vector Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou lattice to model our experimental setup. Despite the idealized nature of this model, we obtain good qualitative agreement between theory and experiments for a variety of dynamical behaviors. We find that the spatial decay is direction-dependent and that drive amplitudes along fundamental displacement axes lead to nonlinear resonant peaks in frequency continuations that are similar to those that occur in one-dimensional damped, driven lattices. However, we observe numerically that driving along other directions results in asymmetric NLMs that bifurcate from the main solution branch, which consists of symmetric NLMs. We also demonstrate both experimentally and numerically that solutions that appear to be time-quasiperiodic bifurcate from the branch of symmetric time-periodic NLMs.

  6. The mechanical properties of engineering structures continuously weaken during service life because of material fatigue or degradation. By contrast, living organisms are able to strengthen their mechanical properties by regenerating parts of their structures. For example, plants strengthen their cell structures by transforming photosynthesis-produced glucose into stiff polysaccharides. In this work, we realize hybrid materials that use photosynthesis of embedded chloroplasts to remodel their microstructures. These materials can be used to three-dimensionally (3D)-print functional structures, which are endowed with matrix-strengthening and crack healing when exposed to white light. The mechanism relies on a 3D-printable polymer that allows for an additional cross-linking reaction with photosynthesis-produced glucose in the material bulk or on the interface. The remodeling behavior can be suspended by freezing chloroplasts, regulated by mechanical preloads, and reversed by environmental cues. This work opens the door for the design of hybrid synthetic-living materials, for applications such as smart composites, lightweight structures, and soft robotics.