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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024

    Understanding the assembly of our Galaxy requires us to also characterize the systems that helped build it. In this work, we accomplish this by exploring the chemistry of accreted halo stars from Gaia-Enceladus/Gaia-Sausage (GES) selected in the infrared from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Data Release 16. We use high resolution optical spectra for 62 GES stars to measure abundances in 20 elements spanning the α, Fe-peak, light, odd-Z, and notably, the neutron-capture groups of elements to understand their trends in the context of and in contrast to the Milky Way and other stellar populations. Using these derived abundances we find that the optical and the infrared abundances agree to within 0.15 dex except for O, Co, Na, Cu, and Ce. These stars have enhanced neutron-capture abundance trends compared to the Milky Way, and their [Eu/Mg] and neutron-capture abundance ratios (e.g. [Y/Eu], [Ba/Eu], [Zr/Ba], [La/Ba], and [Nd/Ba]) point to r-process enhancement and a delay in s-process enrichment. Their [α/Fe] trend is lower than the Milky Way trend for [Fe/H] > −1.5 dex, similar to previous studies of GES stars and consistent with the picture that these stars formed in a system with a lower rate of star formation. This is further supported by their depleted abundances in Ni, Na, and Cu abundances, again, similar to previous studies of low-α stars with accreted origins.

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  3. Current methods for viral discovery target evolutionarily conserved proteins that accurately identify virus families but remain unable to distinguish the zoonotic potential of newly discovered viruses. Here, we apply an attention-enhanced longshort- term memory (LSTM) deep neural net classifier to a highly conserved viral protein target to predict zoonotic potential across betacoronaviruses. The classifier performs with a 94% accuracy. Analysis and visualization of attention at the sequence and structure-level features indicate possible association between important protein-protein interactions governing viral replication in zoonotic betacoronaviruses and zoonotic transmission. 
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  4. Mode connectivity provides novel geometric insights on analyzing loss landscapes and enables building high-accuracy pathways between well-trained neural networks. In this work, we propose to employ mode connectivity in loss landscapes to study the adversarial robustness of deep neural networks, and provide novel methods for improving this robustness. Our experiments cover various types of adversarial attacks applied to different network architectures and datasets. When network models are tampered with backdoor or error-injection attacks, our results demonstrate that the path connection learned using limited amount of bonafide data can effectively mitigate adversarial effects while maintaining the original accuracy on clean data. Therefore, mode connectivity provides users with the power to repair backdoored or error-injected models. We also use mode connectivity to investigate the loss landscapes of regular and robust models against evasion attacks. Experiments show that there exists a barrier in adversarial robustness loss on the path connecting regular and adversarially-trained models. A high correlation is observed between the adversarial robustness loss and the largest eigenvalue of the input Hessian matrix, for which theoretical justifications are provided. Our results suggest that mode connectivity offers a holistic tool and practical means for evaluating and improving adversarial robustness . 
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