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Creators/Authors contains: "Daunert, Sylvia"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2022
  2. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections, accounting for a substantial portion of outpatient hospital and clinic visits. Standard diagnosis of UTI by culture and sensitivity can take at least 48 h, and improper diagnosis can lead to an increase in antibiotic resistance following therapy. To address these shortcomings, rapid bioluminescence assays were developed and evaluated for the detection of UTI using intact, viable cells of Photobacterium mandapamensis USTCMS 1132 or previously lyophilized cells of Photobacterium leiognathi ATCC 33981™. Two platform technologies—tube bioluminescence extinction technology urine (TuBETUr) and cellphone-based UTI bioluminescence extinction technology (CUBET)—were developed andmore »standardized using artificial urine to detect four commonly isolated UTI pathogens—namely, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Besides detection, these assays could also provide information regarding pathogen concentration/level, helping guide treatment decisions. These technologies were able to detect microbes associated with UTI at less than 105 CFU/mL, which is usually the lower cut-off limit for a positive UTI diagnosis. Among the 29 positive UTI samples yielding 105–106 CFU/mL pathogen concentrations, a total of 29 urine specimens were correctly detected by TuBETUr as UTI-positive based on an 1119 s detection window. Similarly, the rapid CUBET method was able to discriminate UTIs from normal samples with high confidence (p ≤ 0.0001), using single-pot conditions and cell phone-based monitoring. These technologies could potentially address the need for point-of-care UTI detection while reducing the possibility of antibiotic resistance associated with misdiagnosed cases of urinary tract infections, especially in low-resource environments.« less
  3. The trend for improved more precise diagnostics and management of disease heavily relies on the measurement of panels of biomarkers in physiological samples of patients. Ideally, the ultimate goal would be to detect as many clinically relevant biomarkers as possible in a single drop of blood, achieving quick, sensitive, reproducible, and affordable detection in small volume physiological samples. Bioluminescent (BL) proteins provide many of the desired characteristics required for such labels, including detection at extremely low concentrations, no interference from physiological fluids leading to excellent detection limits, and compatibility with many miniaturized systems. However, to date the use of BLmore »proteins has been restricted by their limited multiplexing capabilities. BL proteins typically exhibit a single emission profile and decay kinetics making the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes difficult. Recent progresses in this area include the use of two different engineered luminescent proteins to achieve resolved signals via one-dimensional time resolution. This approach, however, to date only lead to a dual analyte detection. Herein, we have demonstrated that using a two-dimensional approach that combines both temporal and spatial resolution, we can expand the multiplexing capabilities of bioluminescent proteins. To that end, the photoprotein aequorin (AEQ) has been employed for the simultaneous detection of three separate analytes in a single well, differentiated through the use of three discrete time/wavelength windows. Through a combination of site-specific mutations and synthetic coelenterazines “semi-synthetic” AEQ variants have been developed with altered emission profiles and decay kinetics. In this study, two AEQ mutant proteins were genetically conjugated to three pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins 6 and 8) resulting in AEQ-labeled cytokines. These fusion proteins were combined with synthetic coelenterazines resulting in proteins with differing emission maxima and half-lives to allow for the simultaneous detection of all three cytokines in a single sample. The validity of the assay was demonstrated in serum by employing human physiological samples and comparing our results with commercially available individual tests for each of the three cytokines.« less