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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  3. Individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are under oxidative stress due to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and elimination. This paper presents a mathematical model with the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) immune response to examine the role of ROS in the dynamics of HIV infection. We classify the equilibria of the model and study the stability of these equilibria. Numerical simulations show that incorporating ROS and CTL immune response into the model leads to very rich dynamics, including bistable phenomena and periodic solutions. Although the current antiretroviral therapy can suppress viral load to the undetectable level, it cannot eradicate the virus. A high level of ROS may be a factor for HIV persistence in patients despite suppressive therapy. These results suggest that oxidative damage and anti-oxidant therapy should be considered in the study of HIV infection and treatment. 
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  6. Abstract

    South China has been experiencing very high rate of acid deposition and severe soil acidification in recent decades, which has been proposed to exacerbate the regional ecosystem phosphorus (P) limitation. We conducted a 10‐year field experiment of simulated acid deposition to examine how acidification impacts seasonal changes of different soil P fractions in a tropical forest with highly acidic soils in south China. As expected, acid addition significantly increased occluded P pool but reduced the other more labile P pools in the dry season. In the wet season, however, acid addition did not change microbial P, soluble P and labile organic P pools. Acid addition significantly increased exchangeable Al3+and Fe3+and the activation of Fe oxides in both seasons. Different from the decline of microbial abundance in the dry season, acid addition increased ectomycorrhizal fungi and its ratio to arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi in the wet season, which significantly stimulated phosphomonoesterase activities and likely promoted the dissolution of occluded P. Our results suggest that, even in already highly acidic soils, the acidification‐induced P limitation could be alleviated by stimulating ectomycorrhizal fungi and phosphomonoesterase activities. The differential responses and microbial controls of seasonal soil P transformation revealed here should be implemented into ecosystem biogeochemical model for predicting plant productivity under future acid deposition scenarios.

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