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  1. Neurotransmitters are involved in functions related to signaling, stress response, and pathological disorder development, and thus, their real-time monitoring at the site of production is important for observing the changes related to these disorders. Here, we demonstrate the first time-dependent quantification of dopamine in the brains of live zebrafish embryos using electrochemically pretreated carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) utilizing differential pulse voltammetry as the measurement technique. The pretreatment of the CFMEs in 0.1 M NaOH held at a potential of +1.0 V for 600 s improves the sensitivity toward dopamine and allows for reliable measurements in low ionic strength media. Wemore »demonstrate the measurement of extracellular dopamine concentrations in the zebrafish brain during late embryogenesis. The extracellular dopamine concentration in the tectum of zebrafish varies between 200 and 400 nM. The conventional pharmacological manipulation of neurotransmitter levels in the brain demonstrates the selective detection of dopamine at the implantation site. Exposure to the dopamine transporter inhibitor nomifensine induces an increase in extracellular dopamine from 201.9 (±34.9) nM to 352.2 (±20.0) nM, while exposure to the norepinephrine transporter inhibitor desipramine does not lead to a significant modulation of the measured signal. Furthermore, we report the quantitative assessment of the catecholamine stress response of embryos to tricaine, an anesthetic frequently used in zebrafish assays. Exposure to tricaine induces a short-lived increase in brain dopamine from 198.6 (±15.7) nM to a maximum of 278.8 (±14.0) nM. Thus, in vivo electrochemistry can detect real-time changes in zebrafish neurochemical physiology resulting from drug exposure.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  3. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in studying the transfer of assets across different blockchains in the form of cross-chain atomic swaps. Unfortunately, the current candidates of atomic swaps (hash-lock time contracts) offer no privacy; the identities as well as the exact trade that happened between any two parties is publicly visible. In this work, we explore the different notions of privacy that we can hope for in an atomic swap protocol. Concretely, we define an atomic swap as a two-party protocol and formalize the different notions of privacy in the form of anonymity, confidentiality and indistinguishability ofmore »swap transactions. As a building block, we abstract out the primitive of Atomic Release of Secrets ( ARS ) which captures atomic exchange of a secret for a pre-decided transaction. We then show how ARS can be used to build privacy-preserving cross-chain swaps. We also show that the recently introduced notion of adapter signatures [Poe18, War17] is a concrete instantiation of ARS under the framework of Schnorr signatures [Sch91] and thus, construct a private cross-chain swap using Schnorr signatures.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. We report a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from 208Pb. We measure APV=550±16(stat)±8(syst) parts per billion, leading to an extraction of the neutral weak form factor FW(Q2=0.00616  GeV2)=0.368±0.013. Combined with our previous measurement, the extracted neutron skin thickness is Rn−Rp=0.283±0.071  fm. The result also yields the first significant direct measurement of the interior weak density of 208Pb: ρ0W=−0.0796±0.0036(exp)±0.0013(theo)  fm−3 leading to the interior baryon density ρ0b=0.1480±0.0036(exp)±0.0013(theo)  fm−3. The measurement accurately constrains the density dependence of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter near saturation density, with implications for the size and composition of neutron stars.
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022