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  1. Abstract

    Programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are emerging as powerful tools for control of light, with applications in quantum information processing, optical range finding, and artificial intelligence. Low-power implementations of these PICs involve micromechanical structures driven capacitively or piezoelectrically but are often limited in modulation bandwidth by mechanical resonances and high operating voltages. Here we introduce a synchronous, micromechanically resonant design architecture for programmable PICs and a proof-of-principle 1×8 photonic switch using piezoelectric optical phase shifters. Our design purposefully exploits high-frequency mechanical resonances and optically broadband components for larger modulation responses on the order of the mechanical quality factorQmwhile maintaining fast switching speeds. We experimentally show switching cycles of all 8 channels spaced by approximately 11 ns and operating at 4.6 dB average modulation enhancement. Future advances in micromechanical devices with highQm, which can exceed 10000, should enable an improved series of low-voltage and high-speed programmable PICs.

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  2. Advances in laser technology have driven discoveries in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics and emerging applications, from quantum computers with cold atoms or ions, to quantum networks with solid-state color centers. This progress is motivating the development of a new generation of optical control systems that can manipulate the light field with high fidelity at wavelengths relevant for AMO applications. These systems are characterized by criteria: (C1) operation at a design wavelength of choice in the visible (VIS) or near-infrared (IR) spectrum, (C2) a scalable platform that can support large channel counts, (C3) high-intensity modulation extinction and (C4) repeatability compatible with low gate errors, and (C5) fast switching times. Here, we provide a pathway to address these challenges by introducing an atom control architecture based on VIS-IR photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology. Based on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor fabrication process, this atom-control PIC (APIC) technology can meet system requirements (C1)–(C5). As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a 16-channel silicon-nitride-based APIC with (5.8±0.4)ns response times and >30dB extinction ratio at a wavelength of 780 nm.

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  3. Waveguide-based optical mode conversion requires wavelength-scale patterning of the waveguide's optical properties. We implement a programmable version of this patterning with piezoelectrically actuated photonics.

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  4. A central goal in creating long-distance quantum networks and distributed quantum computing is the development of interconnected and individually controlled qubit nodes. Atom-like emitters in diamond have emerged as a leading system for optically networked quantum memories, motivating the development of visible-spectrum, multi-channel photonic integrated circuit (PIC) systems for scalable atom control. However, it has remained an open challenge to realize optical programmability with a qubit layer that can achieve high optical detection probability over many optical channels. Here, we address this problem by introducing a modular architecture of piezoelectrically actuated atom-control PICs (APICs) and artificial atoms embedded in diamond nanostructures designed for high-efficiency free-space collection. The high-speed four-channel APIC is based on a splitting tree mesh with triple-phase shifter Mach–Zehnder interferometers. This design simultaneously achieves optically broadband operation at visible wavelengths, high-fidelity switching (>40dB) at low voltages, submicrosecond modulation timescales (>30MHz), and minimal channel-to-channel crosstalk for repeatable optical pulse carving. Via a reconfigurable free-space interconnect, we use the APIC to address single silicon vacancy color centers in individual diamond waveguides with inverse tapered couplers, achieving efficient single photon detection probabilities (∼15%) and second-order autocorrelation measurementsg(2)(0)<0.14 for all channels. The modularity of this distributed APIC–quantum memory system simplifies the quantum control problem, potentially enabling further scaling to thousands of channels.

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  5. Abstract

    Large-scale generation of quantum entanglement between individually controllable qubits is at the core of quantum computing, communications, and sensing. Modular architectures of remotely-connected quantum technologies have been proposed for a variety of physical qubits, with demonstrations reported in atomic and all-photonic systems. However, an open challenge in these architectures lies in constructing high-speed and high-fidelity reconfigurable photonic networks for optically-heralded entanglement among target qubits. Here we introduce a programmable photonic integrated circuit (PIC), realized in a piezo-actuated silicon nitride (SiN)-in-oxide CMOS-compatible process, that implements anN×NMach–Zehnder mesh (MZM) capable of high-speed execution of linear optical transformations. The visible-spectrum photonic integrated mesh is programmed to generate optical connectivity on up toN = 8 inputs for a range of optically-heralded entanglement protocols. In particular, we experimentally demonstrated optical connections between 16 independent pairwise mode couplings through the MZM, with optical transformation fidelities averaging 0.991 ± 0.0063. The PIC’s reconfigurable optical connectivity suffices for the production of 8-qubit resource states as building blocks of larger topological cluster states for quantum computing. Our programmable PIC platform enables the fast and scalable optical switching technology necessary for network-based quantum information processors.

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  6. Abstract

    Recent advances in photonic integrated circuits have enabled a new generation of programmable Mach–Zehnder meshes (MZMs) realized by using cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometers capable of universal linear-optical transformations onNinput/output optical modes. MZMs serve critical functions in photonic quantum information processing, quantum-enhanced sensor networks, machine learning and other applications. However, MZM implementations reported to date rely on thermo-optic phase shifters, which limit applications due to slow response times and high power consumption. Here we introduce a large-scale MZM platform made in a 200 mm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor foundry, which uses aluminium nitride piezo-optomechanical actuators coupled to silicon nitride waveguides, enabling low-loss propagation with phase modulation at greater than 100 MHz in the visible–near-infrared wavelengths. Moreover, the vanishingly low hold-power consumption of the piezo-actuators enables these photonic integrated circuits to operate at cryogenic temperatures, paving the way for a fully integrated device architecture for a range of quantum applications.

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