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  1. Solid-state laser refrigeration of semiconductors remains an outstanding experimental challenge. In this work, we show that, following excitation with a laser wavelength of 532 nm, bulk diamond crystals doped with H3 centers both emit efficient up-conversion (anti-Stokes) photoluminescence and also show significantly reduced photothermal heating relative to crystals doped with nitrogen–vacancy (NV) centers. The H3 center in diamond is a highly photostable defect that avoids bleaching at high laser irradiances of 10–70 MW/cm[Formula: see text] and has been shown to exhibit laser action, tunable over the visible band of 500–600 nm. The observed reduction of photothermal heating arises due to a decrease in the concentration of absorbing point defects, including NV-centers. These results encourage future exploration of techniques for H3 enrichment in diamonds under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions for the simultaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence cooling and radiation balanced lasing in semiconductor materials. Reducing photothermal heating in diamond through the formation of H3 centers also opens up new possibilities in quantum sensing via optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy at ambient conditions.
  2. Abstract

    Reconfigurability of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) has become increasingly important due to the growing demands for electronic–photonic systems on a chip driven by emerging applications, including neuromorphic computing, quantum information, and microwave photonics. Success in these fields usually requires highly scalable photonic switching units as essential building blocks. Current photonic switches, however, mainly rely on materials with weak, volatile thermo‐optic or electro‐optic modulation effects, resulting in large footprints and high energy consumption. As a promising alternative, chalcogenide phase‐change materials (PCMs) exhibit strong optical modulation in a static, self‐holding fashion, but the scalability of present PCM‐integrated photonic applications is still limited by the poor optical or electrical actuation approaches. Here, with phase transitions actuated by in situ silicon PIN diode heaters, scalable nonvolatile electrically reconfigurable photonic switches using PCM‐clad silicon waveguides and microring resonators are demonstrated. As a result, intrinsically compact and energy‐efficient switching units operated with low driving voltages, near‐zero additional loss, and reversible switching with high endurance are obtained in a complementary metal‐oxide‐semiconductor (CMOS)‐compatible process. This work can potentially enable very large‐scale CMOS‐integrated programmable electronic–photonic systems such as optical neural networks and general‐purpose integrated photonic processors.