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  1. A central goal in creating long-distance quantum networks and distributed quantum computing is the development of interconnected and individually controlled qubit nodes. Atom-like emitters in diamond have emerged as a leading system for optically networked quantum memories, motivating the development of visible-spectrum, multi-channel photonic integrated circuit (PIC) systems for scalable atom control. However, it has remained an open challenge to realize optical programmability with a qubit layer that can achieve high optical detection probability over many optical channels. Here, we address this problem by introducing a modular architecture of piezoelectrically actuated atom-control PICs (APICs) and artificial atoms embedded in diamond nanostructures designed for high-efficiency free-space collection. The high-speed four-channel APIC is based on a splitting tree mesh with triple-phase shifter Mach–Zehnder interferometers. This design simultaneously achieves optically broadband operation at visible wavelengths, high-fidelity switching (>40dB) at low voltages, submicrosecond modulation timescales (>30MHz), and minimal channel-to-channel crosstalk for repeatable optical pulse carving. Via a reconfigurable free-space interconnect, we use the APIC to address single silicon vacancy color centers in individual diamond waveguides with inverse tapered couplers, achieving efficient single photon detection probabilities (∼15%) and second-order autocorrelation measurementsg(2)(0)<0.14 for all channels. The modularity of this distributed APIC–quantum memory system simplifies the quantummore »control problem, potentially enabling further scaling to thousands of channels.

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  2. Abstract

    Large-scale generation of quantum entanglement between individually controllable qubits is at the core of quantum computing, communications, and sensing. Modular architectures of remotely-connected quantum technologies have been proposed for a variety of physical qubits, with demonstrations reported in atomic and all-photonic systems. However, an open challenge in these architectures lies in constructing high-speed and high-fidelity reconfigurable photonic networks for optically-heralded entanglement among target qubits. Here we introduce a programmable photonic integrated circuit (PIC), realized in a piezo-actuated silicon nitride (SiN)-in-oxide CMOS-compatible process, that implements anN×NMach–Zehnder mesh (MZM) capable of high-speed execution of linear optical transformations. The visible-spectrum photonic integrated mesh is programmed to generate optical connectivity on up toN = 8 inputs for a range of optically-heralded entanglement protocols. In particular, we experimentally demonstrated optical connections between 16 independent pairwise mode couplings through the MZM, with optical transformation fidelities averaging 0.991 ± 0.0063. The PIC’s reconfigurable optical connectivity suffices for the production of 8-qubit resource states as building blocks of larger topological cluster states for quantum computing. Our programmable PIC platform enables the fast and scalable optical switching technology necessary for network-based quantum information processors.

  3. Abstract

    The scaling of many photonic quantum information processing systems is ultimately limited by the flux of quantum light throughout an integrated photonic circuit. Source brightness and waveguide loss set basic limits on the on-chip photon flux. While substantial progress has been made, separately, towards ultra-low loss chip-scale photonic circuits and high brightness single-photon sources, integration of these technologies has remained elusive. Here, we report the integration of a quantum emitter single-photon source with a wafer-scale, ultra-low loss silicon nitride photonic circuit. We demonstrate triggered and pure single-photon emission into a Si3N4photonic circuit with ≈ 1 dB/m propagation loss at a wavelength of ≈ 930 nm. We also observe resonance fluorescence in the strong drive regime, showing promise towards coherent control of quantum emitters. These results are a step forward towards scaled chip-integrated photonic quantum information systems in which storing, time-demultiplexing or buffering of deterministically generated single-photons is critical.

  4. Abstract

    The past decade has seen tremendous progress in experimentally realizing the building blocks of quantum repeaters. Repeater architectures with multiplexed quantum memories have been proposed to increase entanglement distribution rates, but an open challenge is to maintain entanglement fidelity over long-distance links. Here, we address this with a quantum router architecture comprising many quantum memories connected in a photonic switchboard to broker entanglement flows across quantum networks. We compute the rate and fidelity of entanglement distribution under this architecture using an event-based simulator, finding that the router improves the entanglement fidelity as multiplexing depth increases without a significant drop in the entanglement distribution rate. Specifically, the router permits channel-loss-invariant fidelity, i.e. the same fidelity achievable with lossless links. Furthermore, this scheme automatically prioritizes entanglement flows across the full network without requiring global network information. The proposed architecture uses present-day photonic technology, opening a path to near-term deployable multi-node quantum networks.

  5. Abstract

    We develop a protocol for entanglement generation in the quantum internet that allows a repeater node to usen-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) projective measurements that can fusensuccessfully entangledlinks, i.e., two-qubit entangled Bell pairs shared acrossnnetwork edges, incident at that node. Implementingn-fusion, forn ≥ 3, is in principle not much harder than 2-fusions (Bell-basis measurements) in solid-state qubit memories. If we allow even 3-fusions at the nodes, we find—by developing a connection to a modified version of the site-bond percolation problem—that despite lossy (hence probabilistic) link-level entanglement generation, and probabilistic success of the fusion measurements at nodes, one can generate entanglement between end parties Alice and Bob at a rate that stays constant as the distance between them increases. We prove that this powerful network property is not possible to attain with any quantum networking protocol built with Bell measurements and multiplexing alone. We also design a two-party quantum key distribution protocol that converts the entangled states shared between two nodes into a shared secret, at a key generation rate that is independent of the distance between the two parties.

  6. We present experimental demonstrations of ultra-low power edge computing enabled by wavelength division multiplexed optical links and time-integrating optical receivers. Initial experimentation demonstrations show ≲ 10 fJ of optical energy per MAC.

  7. Abstract

    The development of compact and fieldable mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy devices represents a critical challenge for distributed sensing with applications from gas leak detection to environmental monitoring. Recent work has focused on mid-IR photonic integrated circuit (PIC) sensing platforms and waveguide-integrated mid-IR light sources and detectors based on semiconductors such as PbTe, black phosphorus and tellurene. However, material bandgaps and reliance on SiO2substrates limit operation to wavelengthsλ ≲ 4 μm. Here we overcome these challenges with a chalcogenide glass-on-CaF2PIC architecture incorporating split-gate photothermoelectric graphene photodetectors. Our design extends operation toλ = 5.2 μm with a Johnson noise-limited noise-equivalent power of 1.1 nW/Hz1/2, no fall-off in photoresponse up tof = 1 MHz, and a predicted 3-dB bandwidth off3dB > 1 GHz. This mid-IR PIC platform readily extends to longer wavelengths and opens the door to applications from distributed gas sensing and portable dual comb spectroscopy to weather-resilient free space optical communications.

  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 21, 2023