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  1. Abstract Background

    Recent advances in imaging-based spatially resolved transcriptomics (im-SRT) technologies now enable high-throughput profiling of targeted genes and their locations in fixed tissues. Normalization of gene expression data is often needed to account for technical factors that may confound underlying biological signals.


    Here, we investigate the potential impact of different gene count normalization methods with different targeted gene panels in the analysis and interpretation of im-SRT data. Using different simulated gene panels that overrepresent genes expressed in specific tissue regions or cell types, we demonstrate how normalization methods based on detected gene counts per cell differentially impact normalized gene expression magnitudes in a region- or cell type-specific manner. We show that these normalization-induced effects may reduce the reliability of downstream analyses including differential gene expression, gene fold change, and spatially variable gene analysis, introducing false positive and false negative results when compared to results obtained from gene panels that are more representative of the gene expression of the tissue’s component cell types. These effects are not observed with normalization approaches that do not use detected gene counts for gene expression magnitude adjustment, such as with cell volume or cell area normalization.


    We recommend using non-gene count-based normalization approaches when feasible and evaluating gene panel representativeness before using gene count-based normalization methods if necessary. Overall, we caution that the choice of normalization method and gene panel may impact the biological interpretation of the im-SRT data.

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  2. Abstract Motivation

    Spatial omics data demand computational analysis but many analysis tools have computational resource requirements that increase with the number of cells analyzed. This presents scalability challenges as researchers use spatial omics technologies to profile millions of cells.


    To enhance the scalability of spatial omics data analysis, we developed a rasterization preprocessing framework called SEraster that aggregates cellular information into spatial pixels. We apply SEraster to both real and simulated spatial omics data prior to spatial variable gene expression analysis to demonstrate that such preprocessing can reduce computational resource requirements while maintaining high performance, including as compared to other down-sampling approaches. We further integrate SEraster with existing analysis tools to characterize cell-type spatial co-enrichment across length scales. Finally, we apply SEraster to enable analysis of a mouse pup spatial omics dataset with over a million cells to identify tissue-level and cell-type-specific spatially variable genes as well as spatially co-enriched cell types that recapitulate expected organ structures.

    Availability and implementation

    SEraster is implemented as an R package on GitHub ( with additional tutorials at

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  3. Abstract

    This paper explicates a solution to building correspondences between molecular-scale transcriptomics and tissue-scale atlases. This problem arises in atlas construction and cross-specimen/technology alignment where specimens per emerging technology remain sparse and conventional image representations cannot efficiently model the high dimensions from subcellular detection of thousands of genes. We address these challenges by representing spatial transcriptomics data as generalized functions encoding position and high-dimensional feature (gene, cell type) identity. We map onto low-dimensional atlas ontologies by modeling regions as homogeneous random fields with unknown transcriptomic feature distribution. We solve simultaneously for the minimizing geodesic diffeomorphism of coordinates through LDDMM and for these latent feature densities. We map tissue-scale mouse brain atlases to gene-based and cell-based transcriptomics data from MERFISH and BARseq technologies and to histopathology and cross-species atlases to illustrate integration of diverse molecular and cellular datasets into a single coordinate system as a means of comparison and further atlas construction.

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  4. Abstract

    Spatial transcriptomics (ST) technologies enable high throughput gene expression characterization within thin tissue sections. However, comparing spatial observations across sections, samples, and technologies remains challenging. To address this challenge, we develop STalign to align ST datasets in a manner that accounts for partially matched tissue sections and other local non-linear distortions using diffeomorphic metric mapping. We apply STalign to align ST datasets within and across technologies as well as to align ST datasets to a 3D common coordinate framework. We show that STalign achieves high gene expression and cell-type correspondence across matched spatial locations that is significantly improved over landmark-based affine alignments. Applying STalign to align ST datasets of the mouse brain to the 3D common coordinate framework from the Allen Brain Atlas, we highlight how STalign can be used to lift over brain region annotations and enable the interrogation of compositional heterogeneity across anatomical structures. STalign is available as an open-source Python toolkit at as Supplementary Software with additional documentation and tutorials available at

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  5. Mathelier, Anthony (Ed.)
    Abstract Motivation Single-cell transcriptomics profiling technologies enable genome-wide gene expression measurements in individual cells but can currently only provide a static snapshot of cellular transcriptional states. RNA velocity analysis can help infer cell state changes using such single-cell transcriptomics data. To interpret these cell state changes inferred from RNA velocity analysis as part of underlying cellular trajectories, current approaches rely on visualization with principal components, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding and other 2D embeddings derived from the observed single-cell transcriptional states. However, these 2D embeddings can yield different representations of the underlying cellular trajectories, hindering the interpretation of cell state changes. Results We developed VeloViz to create RNA velocity-informed 2D and 3D embeddings from single-cell transcriptomics data. Using both real and simulated data, we demonstrate that VeloViz embeddings are able to capture underlying cellular trajectories across diverse trajectory topologies, even when intermediate cell states may be missing. By considering the predicted future transcriptional states from RNA velocity analysis, VeloViz can help visualize a more reliable representation of underlying cellular trajectories. Availability and implementation Source code is available on GitHub ( and Bioconductor ( with additional tutorials at Datasets used can be found on Zenodo ( Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. 
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  6. Recent technological advances have enabled spatially resolved measurements of expression profiles for hundreds to thousands of genes in fixed tissues at single-cell resolution. However, scalable computational analysis methods able to take into consideration the inherent 3D spatial organization of cell types and nonuniform cellular densities within tissues are still lacking. To address this, we developed MERINGUE, a computational framework based on spatial autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis to identify genes with spatially heterogeneous expression patterns, infer putative cell–cell communication, and perform spatially informed cell clustering in 2D and 3D in a density-agnostic manner using spatially resolved transcriptomic data. We applied MERINGUE to a variety of spatially resolved transcriptomic data sets including multiplexed error-robust fluorescence in situ hybridization (MERFISH), spatial transcriptomics, Slide-seq, and aligned in situ hybridization (ISH) data. We anticipate that such statistical analysis of spatially resolved transcriptomic data will facilitate our understanding of the interplay between cell state and spatial organization in tissue development and disease. 
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