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  1. The quadrupolar field created by opposing magnets was used to assemble particles into chiral superstructures. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 8, 2024
  3. Organizing the colloidal particles into 3D superstructures is a promising strategy for fabricating functional metamaterials with novel optical, electric, and catalytic properties. The rich surface properties of the colloidal particles provide many ways to manipulate their assembly behavior. Emulsion droplets are ideal microspaces for confining colloidal self-assembly, offering many advantages such as versatility, scalability, and controllability over size, shape, and composition. In this review, we first introduce recently developed strategies for the emulsion-confined assembly of colloidal particles into 3D superstructures by manipulating the interfacial properties of the emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, then demonstrate the novel collective properties of the assembled superstructures and highlight some of their unique optical and catalytic properties and applications in bioimaging, diagnosis, drug delivery, and therapy. 
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    Responsive chromic materials are highly desirable in the fields of displays, anti-counterfeiting, and camouflage, but their advanced applications are usually limited by the unrealized delicate and independent tunability of their three intrinsic attributes of color. This work achieves the separate, continuous, and reversible modulation of structural color brightness and hue with an aqueous suspension of dual-responsive Fe 3 O 4 @polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)@poly( N -isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) flexible photonic nanochains. The underlying modulation mechanism of color brightness was experimentally and numerically deciphered by analyzing the morphological responses to stimuli. When an increasing magnetic field was applied, the random worm-like flexible photonic nanochains gradually orientated along the field direction, due to the dominant magnetic dipole interaction over the thermal motion, lengthening the orientation segment length up to the whole of the nanochains. Consequently, the suspension displays increased color brightness (characterized by diffraction intensity). Meanwhile, the color hue (characterized by diffraction frequency) could be controlled by temperature, due to the volume changes of the interparticle PNIPAM. The achieved diverse color modulation advances the next-generation responsive chromic materials and enriches the basic understanding of the color tuning mechanisms. With versatile and facile color tunability and shape patterning, the developed responsive chromic liquid promises to have attractive potential in full-color displays and in adaptive camouflages. 
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