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  1. Infrared spectroscopy has found wide applications in the analysis of biological materials. A more recent development is the use of engineered nanostructures – plasmonic metasurfaces – as substrates for metasurface-enhanced infrared reflection spectroscopy (MEIRS). Here, we demonstrate that strong field enhancement from plasmonic metasurfaces enables the use of MEIRS as a highly informative analytic technique for real-time monitoring of cells. By exposing live cells cultured on a plasmonic metasurface to chemical compounds, we show that MEIRS can be used as a label-free phenotypic assay for detecting multiple cellular responses to external stimuli: changes in cell morphology, adhesion, and lipid composition of the cellular membrane, as well as intracellular signaling. Using a focal plane array detection system, we show that MEIRS also enables spectro-chemical imaging at the single-cell level. The described metasurface-based all-optical sensor opens the way to a scalable, high-throughput spectroscopic assay for live cells. 
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  2. Abstract High harmonic generation (HHG) opens a window on the fundamental science of strong-field light-mater interaction and serves as a key building block for attosecond optics and metrology. Resonantly enhanced HHG from hot spots in nanostructures is an attractive route to overcoming the well-known limitations of gases and bulk solids. Here, we demonstrate a nanoscale platform for highly efficient HHG driven by intense mid-infrared laser pulses: an ultra-thin resonant gallium phosphide (GaP) metasurface. The wide bandgap and the lack of inversion symmetry of the GaP crystal enable the generation of even and odd harmonics covering a wide range of photon energies between 1.3 and 3 eV with minimal reabsorption. The resonantly enhanced conversion efficiency facilitates single-shot measurements that avoid material damage and pave the way to study the controllable transition between perturbative and non-perturbative regimes of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. 
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  3. null (Ed.)