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  1. Abstract. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration is expectedto increase leaf CO2 assimilation rates, thus promoting plant growthand increasing leaf area. It also decreases stomatal conductance, allowingwater savings, which have been hypothesized to drive large-scale greening,in particular in arid and semiarid climates. However, the increase in leafarea could reduce the benefits of elevated CO2 concentration through soilwater depletion. The net effect of elevated CO2 on leaf- andcanopy-level gas exchange remains uncertain. To address this question, wecompare the outcomes of a heuristic model based on the Partitioning ofEquilibrium Transpiration and Assimilation (PETA) hypothesis and three modelvariants based on stomatal optimization theory. Predicted relative changes in leaf-and canopy-level gas exchange rates are used as a metric of plant responsesto changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Both model approaches predictreductions in leaf-level transpiration rate due to decreased stomatalconductance under elevated CO2, but negligible (PETA) or no(optimization) changes in canopy-level transpiration due to the compensatoryeffect of increased leaf area. Leaf- and canopy-level CO2 assimilationis predicted to increase, with an amplification of the CO2fertilization effect at the canopy level due to the enhanced leaf area. Theexpected increase in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under warmer conditions isgenerally predicted to decrease the sensitivity of gas exchange toatmospheric CO2 concentration inmore »both models. The consistentpredictions by different models that canopy-level transpiration varieslittle under elevated CO2 due to combined stomatal conductancereduction and leaf area increase highlight the coordination ofphysiological and morphological characteristics in vegetation to maximizeresource use (here water) under altered climatic conditions.« less
  2. Temporal dynamics of urban warming have been extensively studied at the diurnal scale, but the impact of background climate on the observed seasonality of surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) remains largely unexplored. On seasonal time scales, the intensity of urban–rural surface temperature differences (ΔTs) exhibits distinctive hysteretic cycles whose shape and looping direction vary across climatic zones. These observations highlight possible delays underlying the dynamics of the coupled urban–biosphere system. However, a general argument explaining the observed hysteretic patterns remains elusive. A coarse-grained model of SUHI coupled with a stochastic soil water balance is developed to demonstrate that the time lags between radiation forcing, air temperature, and rainfall generate a rate-dependent hysteresis, explaining the observed seasonal variations ofΔTs. If solar radiation is in phase with water availability, summer conditions cause strong SUHI intensities due to high rural evaporative cooling. Conversely, cities in seasonally dry regions where evapotranspiration is out of phase with radiation show a summertime oasis effect controlled by background climate and vegetation properties. These seasonal patterns of warming and cooling have significant implications for heat mitigation strategies as urban green spaces can reduceΔTsduring summertime, while potentially negative effects of albedo management duringmore »winter are mitigated by the seasonality of solar radiation.

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  3. null (Ed.)