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  1. The cell morphology of rod-shaped bacteria is determined by the rigid net of peptidoglycan forming the cell wall. Alterations to the rod shape, such as the curved rod, occur through manipulating the process of cell wall synthesis. The human pathogenVibrio choleraetypically exists as a curved rod, but straight rods have been observed under certain conditions. While this appears to be a regulated process, the regulatory pathways controlling cell shape transitions inV. choleraeand the benefits of switching between rod and curved shape have not been determined. We demonstrate that cell shape inV. choleraeis regulated by the bacterial second messenger cyclic dimericmore »guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) by posttranscriptionally repressing expression ofcrvA, a gene encoding an intermediate filament-like protein necessary for curvature formation inV. cholerae.This regulation is mediated by the transcriptional cascade that also induces production of biofilm matrix components, indicating that cell shape is coregulated withV. cholerae’s induction of sessility. During microcolony formation, wild-typeV. choleraecells tended to exist as straight rods, while genetically engineering cells to maintain high curvature reduced microcolony formation and biofilm density. Conversely, straightV. choleraemutants have reduced swimming speed when using flagellar motility in liquid. Our results demonstrate regulation of cell shape in bacteria is a mechanism to increase fitness in planktonic and biofilm lifestyles.

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  2. We report on the status of efforts to improve the reinterpretation of searches and measurements at the LHC in terms of models for new physics, in the context of the LHC Reinterpretation Forum. We detail current experimental offerings in direct searches for new particles, measurements, technical implementations and Open Data, and provide a set of recommendations for further improving the presentation of LHC results in order to better enable reinterpretation in the future. We also provide a brief description of existing software reinterpretation frameworks and recent global analyses of new physics that make use of the current data.