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  1. Ping Wang, Elizabeth Royer (Ed.)
    Arctic storm surge events have a distinct character, and their impact on the coast is unique compared to a non-Arctic event. On the one hand, Arctic peak wind speeds rarely reach hurricane strength (74 mph, 64 knots or greater). And pressure drops associated with Arctic storms are small compared to ones in the tropics. More importantly, the impact of an atmospheric storm on the ocean and on the coast is entirely dependent on the season. If a large storm strikes during the winter or when the ocean is ice-covered, the storm will generate negligible waves and surge, and it will not generate erosion or coastal flooding. On the other hand, if a large storm strikes when the ocean is partially ice-covered (e.g., 50% covered), surge may be enhanced relative to an ice-free ocean, potentially leading to greater coastal flooding.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 23, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 31, 2023
  3. Abstract

    Vulnerability of coastal regions to extreme events motivates an operational coupled inland‐coastal modeling strategy focusing on the coastal transition zone (CTZ), an area between the coast and upland river. To tackle this challenge, we propose a top‐down framework for investigating the contribution of different processes to the hydrodynamics of CTZs with various geometrical shapes, different physical properties, and under several forcing conditions. We further propose a novel method, called tidal vanishing point (TVP), for delineating the extent of CTZs through the upland. We demonstrate the applicability of our framework over the United States East and Gulf coasts. We categorize CTZs in the region into three classes, namely, without estuary (direct river–coast connection), triangular‐, and trapezoidal‐shaped estuary. The results show that although semidiurnal tidal constituents are dominant in most cases, diurnal tidal constituents become more prevalent in the river segment as the discharge increases. Also, decreasing the bed roughness value promotes more significant changes in the results than increasing it by the same value. Additionally, the estuary promotes tidal energy attenuation and consequently decreases the reach of tidal signals through the upland. The proposed framework is generic and extensible to any coastal region.

  4. Abstract

    Sea level rise and intense hurricane events make the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States increasingly vulnerable to flooding, which necessitates the development of computational models for accurate water level simulation in these areas to safeguard the coastal wellbeing. With this regard, a model framework for water level simulation over coastal transition zone during hurricane events is built in this study. The model takes advantage of the National Water Model’s strength in simulating rainfall–runoff process, and D‐Flow Flexible Mesh’s ability to support unstructured grid in hydrodynamic processes simulation with storm surges/tides information from the Advanced CIRCulation model. We apply the model on the Delaware Estuary to simulate extreme water level and to investigate the contribution of different physical components to it during Hurricane Isabel (2003). The model shows satisfactory performance with an average Willmott skill of 0.965. Model results suggest that storm surge is the most dominating component of extreme water level with an average contribution of 78.16%, second by the astronomical tide with 19.52%. While the contribution of rivers is mainly restricted to the upper part of the estuary upstream of Schuylkill River, local wind‐induced water level is more pronounced with values larger than 0.2 m overmore »most part of the estuary.

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