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  1. Abstract The metal additive manufacturing industry is actively developing instruments and strategies to enable higher productivity, optimal build quality, and controllable as-built microstructure. A beam controlling technique, laser oscillation has shown potential in all these aspects in laser welding; however, few attempts have been made to understand the underlying physics of the oscillating keyholes/melt pools which are the prerequisites for these strategies to become a useful tool for laser-based additive manufacturing processes. Here, to address this gap, we utilized a synchrotron-based X-ray operando technique to image the dynamic keyhole oscillation in Ti-6Al-4V using a miniature powder bed fusion setup. We found good agreement between the experimental observations and simulations performed with a validated Lattice Boltzmann multiphysics model. The study revealed the continuous and periodic fluctuations in the characteristic keyhole parameters that are unique to the oscillating laser beam processing and responsible for the chevron pattern formation at solidification. In particular, despite the intrinsic longer-range fluctuation, the oscillating technique displayed potential for reducing keyhole instability, mitigating porosity formation, and altering surface topology. These insights on the oscillating keyhole dynamics can be useful for the future development and application of this technique. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. The Binder Jetting (BJ) process is capable of producing parts at high speeds from a variety of materials, but performance is limited by defects in the final parts. An improved understanding of fundamental phenomena in the printing process is needed to understand the source of these defects. This work presents initial findings from high-speed imaging of the BJ process using synchrotron X-rays. High-speed X-ray imaging allows for direct observation of key physical mechanisms in the printing process that may introduce defects including binder droplet impact on the powder bed, powder rearrangement below and above the powder bed surface, and balling formation. Testing was performed with multiple materials and droplet spacings to compare the effect on observed phenomena. Multiple lines were printed on packed and loose powder beds to further explore factors that affect defect formation and to better simulate industrially relevant conditions. 
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  4. Owing to the opaque nature of the laminated structures, traditional high-speed optical camera cannot be used to detect the dynamic process of sub-surface deformation. In this article, we report a study of using high speed X-ray imaging to study the high strain rate deformation in laminated Al structures. We used a Kolsky bar apparatus to apply dynamic compression and a high-speed synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) setup to conduct the in situ X-ray imaging study. The in situ X-ray imaging captures the shock wave propagation in the laminated structures. After shock compression, we characterized the microstructures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which demonstrates an increase of dislocation density. The micro-pillar compression tests show that the yield strength at 0.2% offset of laminated Al-graphene composite has a significant increase of 67%, from 30 to 50 MPa, compared to laminate Al after shock loading. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. The continued development of metal additive manufacturing (AM) has expanded the engineering metallic alloys for which these processes may be applied, including beta-titanium alloys with desirable strength-to-density ratios. To understand the response of beta-titanium alloys to AM processing, solidification and microstructure evolution needs to be investigated. In particular, thermal gradients (Gs) and solidification velocities (Vs) experienced during AM are needed to link processing to microstructure development, including the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). In this work, in situ synchrotron X-ray radiography of the beta-titanium alloy Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al (wt.%) (Ti-1023) during simulated laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) was performed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, allowing for direct determination of Vs. Two different computational modeling tools, SYSWELD and FLOW-3D, were utilized to investigate the solidification conditions of spot and raster melt scenarios. The predicted Vs obtained from both pieces of computational software exhibited good agreement with those obtained from in situ synchrotron X-ray radiography measurements. The model that accounted for fluid flow also showed the ability to predict trends unobservable in the in situ synchrotron X-ray radiography, but are known to occur during rapid solidification. A CET model for Ti-1023 was also developed using the Kurz–Giovanola–Trivedi model, which allowed modeled Gs and Vs to be compared in the context of predicted grain morphologies. Both pieces of software were in agreement for morphology predictions of spot-melts, but drastically differed for raster predictions. The discrepancy is attributable to the difference in accounting for fluid flow, resulting in magnitude-different values of Gs for similar Vs. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing technology with the capability of printing complex metal parts directly from digital models. Between two available emission modes employed in LPBF printing systems, pulsed wave (PW) emission provides more control over the heat input compared to continuous wave (CW) emission, which is highly beneficial for printing parts with intricate features. However, parts printed with pulsed wave LPBF (PW-LPBF) commonly contain pores, which degrade their mechanical properties. In this study, we reveal pore formation mechanisms during PW-LPBF in real time by using an in-situ high-speed synchrotron x-ray imaging technique. We found that vapor depression collapse proceeds when the laser irradiation stops within one pulse, resulting in occasional pore formation during PW-LPBF. We also revealed that the melt ejection and rapid melt pool solidification during pulsed-wave laser melting resulted in cavity formation and subsequent formation of a pore pattern in the melted track. The pore formation dynamics revealed here may provide guidance on developing pore elimination approaches. 
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