skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Forlizzi, Jodi"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 17, 2023
  2. How are people using current smart home technologies, and how do they conceptualize future ones that are more interconnected and more capable than those available today? We deployed an online survey study to 150 participants to investigate use of and opinions about smart speakers, home robots, virtual assistants, and other smart home devices.We also gauged how impressions of connected smart home devices are shaped by the way the devices interact with one another. Through a mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative approach, we found that people mostly use single devices for single functions, and have simple and brief interactions with virtual assistants. However, they imagine their future devices to have more control over the physical environment (i.e., interact with each other) and envision them interacting with people in more socially complex ways. These findings motivate design considerations and research directions for connected smart home technologies.
  3. HCI research has explored AI as a design material, suggesting that designers can envision AI’s design opportunities to improve UX. Recent research claimed that enterprise applications offer an opportunity for AI innovation at the user experience level. We conducted design workshops to explore the practices of experienced designers who work on cross-functional AI teams in the enterprise. We discussed how designers successfully work with and struggle with AI. Our findings revealed that designers can innovate at the system and service levels. We also discovered that making a case for an AI feature’s return on investment is a barrier for designers when they propose AI concepts and ideas. Our discussions produced novel insights on designers’ role on AI teams, and the boundary objects they used for collaborating with data scientists. We discuss the implications of these findings as opportunities for future research aiming to empower designers in working with data and AI.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 29, 2023
  4. With the growing industry applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, pre-trained models and APIs have emerged and greatly lowered the barrier of building AI-powered products. However, novice AI application designers often struggle to recognize the inherent algorithmic trade-offs and evaluate model fairness before making informed design decisions. In this study, we examined the Objective Revision Evaluation System (ORES), a machine learning (ML) API in Wikipedia used by the community to build anti-vandalism tools. We designed an interactive visualization system to communicate model threshold trade-offs and fairness in ORES. We evaluated our system by conducting 10 in-depth interviews with potential ORES application designers. We found that our system helped application designers who have limited ML backgrounds learn about in-context ML knowledge, recognize inherent value trade-offs, and make design decisions that aligned with their goals. By demonstrating our system in a real-world domain, this paper presents a novel visualization approach to facilitate greater accessibility and human agency in AI application design.
  5. Social agents and robots are moving into front-line positions in brick and mortar services, taking on roles where they directly interact with customers. These agents could potentially recognize customers to personalize service. Will customers like this, or might they feel monitored and profiled? Robots could also re-embody (move their “personality” between one body and another) in order to take on multiple roles that are typically performed by different people. Will this make customers feel more taken care of, or will it raise concerns about the robot’s competence and expertise? Our work investigates when robots should and should not recognize customers and re-embody. Our online study used storyboards to present possible future interactions between robots and customers across several different service contexts. Our findings suggest that people generally accept robots identifying customers and taking on vastly different roles. However, in some contexts, these robot behaviors seem creepy and untrustworthy.
  6. This work investigates how social agents can be designed to create a sense of ownership over them within a group of users. Social agents, such as conversational agents and chatbots, currently interact with people in impersonal, isolated, and often one-on-one interactions: one user and one agent. This is likely to change as agents become more socially sophisticated and integrated in social fabrics. Previous research has indicated that understanding who owns an agent can assist in creating expectations and understanding who an agent is accountable to within a group. We present findings from a three week case-study in which we implemented a chatbot that was successful in creating a sense of collective ownership within a community. We discuss the design choices that led to this outcome and implications for social agent design.
  7. Agents that support spoken interaction (e.g., Amazon Echo) are designed for social spaces like the home, yet designers know little about how they should respond to social activity around them. We set out to reconsider current one-on-one interactions with agents, and explore the design space of future socially sophisticated agents. To do so, we use an iterative co-design process with designers and theatre experts to devise an immersive performance, "Robotic Futures." Theatre is a form of knowing through doing-by examining the interactions that persisted in the devising process and those that fell through, we conclude with a proposition for design considerations for future agents. Based on emerging research in this space, we focus on the characteristics of personally-owned agents in comparison to shared agents, and consider the roles and functions each introduce in their integration in the home.
  8. Artificial intelligence algorithms have been used to enhance a wide variety of products and services, including assisting human decision making in high-stake contexts. However, these algorithms are complex and have trade-offs, notably between prediction accuracy and fairness to population subgroups. This makes it hard for designers to understand algorithms and design products or services in a way that respects users' goals, values, and needs. We proposed a method to help designers and users explore algorithms, visualize their trade-offs, and select algorithms with trade-offs consistent with their goals and needs. We evaluated our method on the problem of predicting criminal defendants' likelihood to re-offend through (i) a large-scale Amazon Mechanical Turk experiment, and (ii) in-depth interviews with domain experts. Our evaluations show that our method can help designers and users of these systems better understand and navigate algorithmic trade-offs. This paper contributes a new way of providing designers the ability to understand and control the outcomes of algorithmic systems they are creating.
  9. The presence of voice activated personal assistants (VAPAs) in people's homes rises each year [31]. Industry efforts are invested in making interactions with VAPAs more personal by leveraging information from messages and calendars, and by accessing user accounts for 3rd party services. However, the use of personal data becomes more complicated in interpersonal spaces, such as people's homes. Should a shared agent access the information of many users? If it does, how should it navigate issues of privacy and control? Designers currently lack guidelines to help them design appropriate agent behaviors. We used Speed Dating to explore inchoate social mores around agent actions within a home, including issues of proactivity, interpersonal conflict, and agent prevarication. Findings offer new insights on how more socially sophisticated agents might sense, make judgements about, and navigate social roles and individuals. We discuss how our findings might impact future research and future agent behaviors.