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  1. Abstract

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as semiconductors and ferroelectrics are promising for future energy-efficient logic devices because of their extraordinary electronic properties at atomic thickness. In this work, we investigated a van der Waals heterostructure composited of 2D semiconducting MoS2 and 2D ferroelectric CuInP2S6 (CIPS) and NiPS3. Instead of using 2D ferroelectrics as conventional gate dielectric layers, here we applied CIPS and NiPS3 as a ferroelectric capping layer, and investigated a long-distance coupling effect with the gate upon the sandwiched 2D MoS2 channels. Our experimental results showed an outstanding enhancement of the electrodynamic gating in 2D MoS2 transistors, represented by a significant reduction of subthreshold swing at room temperature. This was due to the coupling-induced polarization of 2D ferroelectrics at 2D semiconductor surface which led to an effective and dynamic magnification of the gate capacitance. Meanwhile, the electrostatic gating was remained steady after adding the ferroelectric capping layer, providing ease and compatibility for further implementation with existing circuit and system design. Our work demonstrates the long-distance coupling effect of 2D ferroelectrics in a capping architecture, reveals its impacts from both electrodynamic and electrostatic perspectives, and expands the potential of 2D ferroelectrics to further improve the performance of energy-efficient nanoelectronics.

  2. Abstract Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) has been recognized as a potential substitution of platinum (Pt) for electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the broad adoption of MoS 2 is hindered by its limited number of active sites and low inherent electrical conductivity. In this work, we employed a one-step solvothermal synthesis technique to construct a ternary hybrid structure consisting of dual-phase MoS 2, titanium carbide (Ti 3 C 2 ) MXene, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and demonstrated synergistic effects for active site exposure, surface area enlargement, and electrical conductivity improvement of the catalyst. The dual-phase MoS 2 (DP-MoS 2 ) is directly formed on the MXene with CNTs acting as crosslinks between 2D islands. The existence of edge-enriched metallic phase MoS 2 , the conductive backbone of MXene along with the crosslink function of CNTs clearly improves the overall HER performance of the ternary nanocomposite. Moreover, the integration of MoS 2 with MXene not only increases the interlayer distance of the 2D layers but also partially suppresses the MXene oxidation and the 2D layer restacking, leading to good catalytic stability. As a result, an overpotential of 169 mV and a low Tafel slope of 51 mV/dec was successfully achieved.more »This work paves a way for 2D-based electrocatalyst engineering and sheds light on the development of the next-generation noble metal-free HER electrocatalysts.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Tailoring thermal transport by structural parameters could result in mechanically fragile and brittle networks. An indispensable goal is to design hierarchical architecture materials that combine thermal and mechanical properties in a continuous and cohesive network. A promising strategy to create such a hierarchical network targets additive manufacturing of hybrid porous voxels at nanoscale. Here we describe the convergence of agile additive manufacturing of porous hybrid voxels to tailor hierarchically and mechanically tunable objects. In one strategy, the uniformly distributed porous silica voxels, which form the basis for the control of thermal transport, are non-covalently interfaced with polymeric networks, yielding hierarchic super-elastic architectures with thermal insulation properties. Another additive strategy for achieving mechanical strength involves the versatile orthogonal surface hybridization of porous silica voxels retains its low thermal conductivity of 19.1 mW m−1 K−1, flexible compressive recovery strain (85%), and tailored mechanical strength from 71.6 kPa to 1.5 MPa. The printed lightweight high-fidelity objects promise thermal aging mitigation for lithium-ion batteries, providing a thermal management pathway using 3D printed silica objects.

  5. Abstract

    Soft, worm-like robots show promise in complex and constrained environments due to their robust, yet simple movement patterns. Although many such robots have been developed, they either rely on tethered power supplies and complex designs or cannot move external loads. To address these issues, we here introduce a novel, maggot-inspired, magnetically driven “mag-bot” that utilizes shape memory alloy-induced, thermoresponsive actuation and surface pattern-induced anisotropic friction to achieve locomotion inspired by fly larvae. This simple, untethered design can carry cargo that weighs up to three times its own weight with only a 17% reduction in speed over unloaded conditions thereby demonstrating, for the first time, how soft, untethered robots may be used to carry loads in controlled environments. Given their small scale and low cost, we expect that these mag-bots may be used in remote, confined spaces for small objects handling or as components in more complex designs.

  6. The conserved signal recognition particle (SRP) cotranslationally delivers ~30% of the proteome to the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The molecular mechanism by which eukaryotic SRP transitions from cargo recognition in the cytosol to protein translocation at the ER is not understood. Here, structural, biochemical, and single-molecule studies show that this transition requires multiple sequential conformational rearrangements in the targeting complex initiated by guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)–driven compaction of the SRP receptor (SR). Disruption of these rearrangements, particularly in mutant SRP54 G226E linked to severe congenital neutropenia, uncouples the SRP/SR GTPase cycle from protein translocation. Structures of targeting intermediates reveal the molecular basis of early SRP-SR recognition and emphasize the role of eukaryote-specific elements in regulating targeting. Our results provide a molecular model for the structural and functional transitions of SRP throughout the targeting cycle and show that these transitions provide important points for biological regulation that can be perturbed in genetic diseases.