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The paper has two major themes. The first part of the paper establishes certain general results for infinitedimensional optimization problems on Hilbert spaces. These results cover the classical representer theorem and many of its variants as special cases and offer a wider scope of applications. The second part of the paper then develops a systematic approach for learning the drift function of a stochastic differential equation by integrating the results of the first part with Bayesian hierarchical framework. Importantly, our Bayesian approach incorporates lowcost sparse learning through proper use of shrinkage priors while allowing proper quantification of uncertainty through posterior distributions. Several examples at the end illustrate the accuracy of our learning scheme.more » « less

Mikolaj Bojanczyk ; Emanuela Merelli ; David P. Woodruff (Ed.)Two equal length strings are a parameterized match (pmatch) iff there exists a onetoone function that renames the symbols in one string to those in the other. The Parameterized Suffix Tree (PST) [Baker, STOC' 93] is a fundamental data structure that handles various string matching problems under this setting. The PST of a text T[1,n] over an alphabet Σ of size σ takes O(nlog n) bits of space. It can report any entry in (parameterized) (i) suffix array, (ii) inverse suffix array, and (iii) longest common prefix (LCP) array in O(1) time. Given any pattern P as a query, a position i in T is an occurrence iff T[i,i+P1] and P are a pmatch. The PST can count the number of occurrences of P in T in time O(Plog σ) and then report each occurrence in time proportional to that of accessing a suffix array entry. An important question is, can we obtain a compressed version of PST that takes space close to the text’s size of nlogσ bits and still support all three functionalities mentioned earlier? In SODA' 17, Ganguly et al. answered this question partially by presenting an O(nlogσ) bit index that can support (parameterized) suffix array and inverse suffix array operations in O(log n) time. However, the compression of the (parameterized) LCP array and the possibility of faster suffix array and inverse suffix array queries in compact space were left open. In this work, we obtain a compact representation of the (parameterized) LCP array. With this result, in conjunction with three new (parameterized) suffix array representations, we obtain the first set of PST representations in o(nlog n) bits (when logσ = o(log n)) as follows. Here ε > 0 is an arbitrarily small constant.  Space O(n logσ) bits and query time O(log_σ^ε n);  Space O(n logσlog log_σ n) bits and query time O(log log_σ n); and  Space O(n logσ log^ε_σ n) bits and query time O(1). The first tradeoff is an improvement over Ganguly et al.’s result, whereas our third tradeoff matches the optimal time performance of Baker’s PST while squeezing the space by a factor roughly log_σ n. We highlight that our tradeoffs match the spaceandtime bounds of the bestknown compressed text indexes for exact pattern matching and further improvement is highly unlikely.more » « less

null (Ed.)Let T[1,n] be a string of length n and T[i,j] be the substring of T starting at position i and ending at position j. A substring T[i,j] of T is a repeat if it occurs more than once in T; otherwise, it is a unique substring of T. Repeats and unique substrings are of great interest in computational biology and information retrieval. Given string T as input, the Shortest Unique Substring problem is to find a shortest substring of T that does not occur elsewhere in T. In this paper, we introduce the range variant of this problem, which we call the Range Shortest Unique Substring problem. The task is to construct a data structure over T answering the following type of online queries efficiently. Given a range [α,β], return a shortest substring T[i,j] of T with exactly one occurrence in [α,β]. We present an O(nlogn)word data structure with O(logwn) query time, where w=Ω(logn) is the word size. Our construction is based on a nontrivial reduction allowing for us to apply a recently introduced optimal geometric data structure [Chan et al., ICALP 2018]. Additionally, we present an O(n)word data structure with O(nlogϵn) query time, where ϵ>0 is an arbitrarily small constant. The latter data structure relies heavily on another geometric data structure [Nekrich and Navarro, SWAT 2012].more » « less