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A theory for the characterization of the fourthorder moment of electromagnetic wave beams is presented in the case when the source is partially coherent. A Gaussian–Schell model is used for the partially coherent random source. The whitenoise paraxial regime is considered, which holds when the wavelength is much smaller than the correlation radius of the source, the beam radius of the source, and the correlation length of the medium, which are themselves much smaller than the propagation distance. The complex wave amplitude field can then be described by the ItôSchrödinger equation. This equation gives closed evolution equations for the wave field moments at all orders and here the fourthorder moment equations are considered. The general fourthorder moment equations are solved explicitly in the scintillation regime (when the correlation radius of the source is of the same order as the correlation radius of the medium, but the beam radius is much larger) and the result gives a characterization of the intensity covariance function. The form of the intensity covariance function derives from the solution of the transport equation for the Wigner distribution associated with the secondorder wave moment. The fourthorder moment results for polarized waves are used in an application for imaging of partially coherent sources.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available November 2, 2024

When waves propagate through a complex medium like the turbulent atmosphere the wave field becomes incoherent and the wave intensity forms a complex speckle pattern. In this paper we study a speckle memory effect in the frequency domain and some of its consequences. This effect means that certain properties of the speckle pattern produced by wave transmission through a randomly scattering medium is preserved when shifting the frequency of the illumination. The speckle memory effect is characterized via a detailed novel analysis of the fourthorder moment of the random paraxial Green's function at four different frequencies. We arrive at a precise characterization of the frequency memory effect and what governs the strength of the memory. As an application we quantify the statistical stability of timereversal wave refocusing through a randomly scattering medium in the paraxial or beam regime. Time reversal refers to the situation when a transmitted wave field is recorded on a timereversal mirror then time reversed and sent back into the complex medium. The reemitted wave field then refocuses at the original source point. We compute the mean of the refocused wave and identify a novel quantitative description of its variance in terms of the radius of the timereversal mirror, the size of its elements, the source bandwidth, and the statistics of the random medium fluctuations.more » « less

We study the paraxial wave equation with a randomly perturbed index of refraction, which can model the propagation of a wave beam in a turbulent medium. The random perturbation is a stationary and isotropic process with a general form of the covariance that may or may not be integrable. We focus attention mostly on the nonintegrable case, which corresponds to a random perturbation with longrange correlations, that is, relevant for propagation through a cloudy turbulent atmosphere. The analysis is carried out in a highfrequency regime where the forward scattering approximation holds. It reveals that the randomization of the wave field is multiscale: The travel time of the wave front is randomized at short distances of propagation, and it can be described by a fractional Brownian motion. The wave field observed in the random travel time frame is affected by the random perturbations at long distances, and it is described by a Schr\"odingertype equation driven by a standard Brownian field. We use these results to quantify how scattering leads to decorrelation of the spatial and spectral components of the wave field and to a deformation of the pulse emitted by the source. These are important questions for applications, such as imaging and free space communications with pulsed laser beams through a turbulent atmosphere. We also compare the results with those used in the optics literature, which are based on the Kolmogorov model of turbulence. We show explicitly that the commonly used approximations for the decorrelation of spatial and spectral components are appropriate for the Kolmogorov model but fail for models with longrange correlations.more » « less

We introduce a novel approach to waveform inversion based on a datadriven reduced order model (ROM) of the wave operator. The presentation is for the acoustic wave equation, but the approach can be extended to elastic or electromagnetic waves. The data are time resolved measurements of the pressure wave gathered by an acquisition system that probes the unknown medium with pulses and measures the generated waves. We propose to solve the inverse problem of velocity estimation by minimizing the square misfit between the ROM computed from the recorded data and the ROM computed from the modeled data, at the current guess of the velocity. We give a step by step computation of the ROM, which depends nonlinearly on the data and yet can be obtained from them in a noniterative fashion, using efficient methods from linear algebra. We also explain how to make the ROM robust to data inaccuracy. The ROM computation requires the full array response matrix gathered with colocated sources and receivers. However, we find that the computation can deal with an approximation of this matrix, obtained from towedstreamer data using interpolation and reciprocity onthefly. Although the fullwaveform inversion approach of nonlinear leastsquares data fitting is challenging without lowfrequency information, due to multiple minima of the data fit objective function, we find that the ROM misfit objective function has better behavior, even for a poor initial guess. We also find by explicit computation of the objective functions in a simple setting that the ROM misfit objective function has convexity properties, whereas the leastsquares data fit objective function displays multiple local minima.more » « less

We present a theory for wave scintillation in the situation of a timedependent partially coherent source and a timedependent randomly heterogeneous medium. Our objective is to understand how the scintillation index of the measured intensity depends on the source and medium parameters. We deduce from an asymptotic analysis of the random wave equation a general form of the scintillation index, and we evaluate this in various scaling regimes. The scintillation index is a fundamental quantity that is used to analyze and optimize imaging and communication schemes. Our results are useful to quantify the scintillation index under realistic propagation scenarios and to address such optimization challenges.

A central question in freespace optical communications is how to improve the transfer of information between a transmitter and a receiver. The capacity of the communication channel can be increased by multiplexing of independent modes using either: (1) the multipleinput–multipleoutput (MIMO) approach, where communication is done with modes obtained from the singular value decomposition of the transfer matrix from the transmitter array to the receiver array, or (2) the orbital angular momentum (OAM) approach, which uses vortex beams that carry angular momenta. In both cases, the number of usable modes is limited by the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and the effect of the turbulent atmosphere. The goal of this paper is twofold: first, we show that the MIMO and OAM multiplexing schemes are closely related. Specifically, in the case of circular apertures, the leading singular vectors of the transfer matrix, which are useful for communication, are essentially the same as the commonly used Laguerre–Gauss vortex beams, provided these have a special radius that depends on the wavelength, the distance from the transmitter to the receiver, and the ratio of the radii of their apertures. Second, we characterize the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the communication modes using the phase screen method put in the mathematical framework of beam propagation in random media.