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  1. Abstract We investigate the cold and warm gas content, kinematics, and spatial distribution of six local massive elliptical galaxies to probe the origin of the multiphase gas in their atmospheres. We report new observations, including Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy [C ii ], Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array CO, Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) H α +[N ii ], and Very Large Array (VLA) radio observations. These are complemented by a large suite of multiwavelength archival data sets, including thermodynamical properties of the hot gas and radio jets, which are leveraged to investigate the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feeding/feedback in regulating the multiphase gas content. Our galactic sample shows a significant diversity in cool gas content, spanning filamentary and rotating structures. In our noncentral galaxies, the distribution of such gas is often concentrated, at variance with the more extended features observed in central galaxies. Misalignment between the multiphase gas and stars suggest that stellar mass loss is not the primary driver. A fraction of the cool gas might be acquired via galaxy interactions, but we do not find quantitative evidence of mergers in most of our systems. Instead, key evidence supports the origin via condensation out of the diffusemore »halo. Comparing with chaotic cold accretion (CCA) simulations, we find that our cool gas-free galaxies are likely in the overheated phase of the self-regulated AGN cycle, while for our galaxies with cool gas, the k-plot and AGN power correlation corroborate the phase of CCA feeding in which the condensation rain is triggering more vigorous AGN heating. The related C-ratio further shows that central/noncentral galaxies are expected to generate an extended/inner rain, consistent with our sample.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Context. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are thought to be intimately connected with their host galaxies through feeding and feedback processes. A strong coupling is predicted and supported by cosmological simulations of galaxy formation, but the details of the physical mechanisms are still observationally unconstrained. Aims. Galaxies are complex systems of stars and a multiphase interstellar medium (ISM). A spatially resolved multiwavelength survey is required to map the interaction of AGN with their host galaxies on different spatial scales and different phases of the ISM. The goal of the Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) is to obtain the necessary spatially resolved multiwavelength observations for an unbiased sample of local unobscured luminous AGN. Methods. We present the overall CARS survey design and the associated wide-field optical integral-field unit (IFU) spectroscopy for all 41 CARS targets at z  < 0.06 randomly selected from the Hamburg/ESO survey of luminous unobscured AGN. This data set provides the backbone of the CARS survey and allows us to characterize host galaxy morphologies, AGN parameters, precise systemic redshifts, and ionized gas distributions including excitation conditions, kinematics, and metallicities in unprecedented detail. Results. We focus our study on the size of the extended narrow-line region (ENLR) which has been traditionallymore »connected to AGN luminosity. Given the large scatter in the ENLR size–luminosity relation, we performed a large parameter search to identify potentially more fundamental relations. Remarkably, we identified the strongest correlation between the maximum projected ENLR size and the black hole mass, consistent with an R ENLR,max ∼ M BH 0.5 relationship. We interpret the maximum ENLR size as a timescale indicator of a single black hole (BH) radiative-efficient accretion episode for which we inferred 〈log( t AGN /[yr])〉 = (0.45 ± 0.08)log( M BH /[ M ⊙ ]) + 1.78 −0.67 +0.54 using forward modeling. The extrapolation of our inferred relation toward higher BH masses is consistent with an independent lifetime estimate from the He  II proximity zones around luminous AGN at z  ∼ 3. Conclusions. While our proposed link between the BH mass and AGN lifetime might be a secondary correlation itself or impacted by unknown biases, it has a few relevant implications if confirmed. For example, the famous AGN Eigenvector 1 parameter space may be partially explained by the range in AGN lifetimes. Also, the lack of observational evidence for negative AGN feedback on star formation can be explained by such timescale effects. Further observational tests are required to confirm or rule out our BH mass dependent AGN lifetime hypothesis.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. ABSTRACT We present Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array observations of the brightest cluster galaxy Hydra-A, a nearby (z = 0.054) giant elliptical galaxy with powerful and extended radio jets. The observations reveal CO(1−0), CO(2–1), 13CO(2–1), CN(2–1), SiO(5–4), HCO+(1–0), HCO+(2–1), HCN(1–0), HCN(2–1), HNC(1–0), and H2CO(3–2) absorption lines against the galaxy’s bright and compact active galactic nucleus. These absorption features are due to at least 12 individual molecular clouds that lie close to the centre of the galaxy and have velocities of approximately −50 to +10 km s−1 relative to its recession velocity, where positive values correspond to inward motion. The absorption profiles are evidence of a clumpy interstellar medium within brightest cluster galaxies composed of clouds with similar column densities, velocity dispersions, and excitation temperatures to those found at radii of several kpc in the Milky Way. We also show potential variation in a ∼10 km s−1 wide section of the absorption profile over a 2 yr time-scale, most likely caused by relativistic motions in the hot spots of the continuum source that change the background illumination of the absorbing clouds.