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  1. Abstract

    Many modern algorithms for inverse problems and data assimilation rely on ensemble Kalman updates to blend prior predictions with observed data. Ensemble Kalman methods often perform well with a small ensemble size, which is essential in applications where generating each particle is costly. This paper develops a non-asymptotic analysis of ensemble Kalman updates, which rigorously explains why a small ensemble size suffices if the prior covariance has moderate effective dimension due to fast spectrum decay or approximate sparsity. We present our theory in a unified framework, comparing several implementations of ensemble Kalman updates that use perturbed observations, square root filtering and localization. As part of our analysis, we develop new dimension-free covariance estimation bounds for approximately sparse matrices that may be of independent interest.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Bayesian inference provides a systematic framework for integration of data with mathematical models to quantify the uncertainty in the solution of the inverse problem. However, the solution of Bayesian inverse problems governed by complex forward models described by partial differential equations (PDEs) remains prohibitive with black-box Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We present hIPPYlib-MUQ, an extensible and scalable software framework that contains implementations of state-of-the art algorithms aimed to overcome the challenges of high-dimensional, PDE-constrained Bayesian inverse problems. These algorithms accelerate MCMC sampling by exploiting the geometry and intrinsic low-dimensionality of parameter space via derivative information and low rank approximation. The software integrates two complementary open-source software packages, hIPPYlib and MUQ. hIPPYlib solves PDE-constrained inverse problems using automatically-generated adjoint-based derivatives, but it lacks full Bayesian capabilities. MUQ provides a spectrum of powerful Bayesian inversion models and algorithms, but expects forward models to come equipped with gradients and Hessians to permit large-scale solution. By combining these two complementary libraries, we created a robust, scalable, and efficient software framework that realizes the benefits of each and allows us to tackle complex large-scale Bayesian inverse problems across a broad spectrum of scientific and engineering disciplines. To illustrate the capabilities of hIPPYlib-MUQ, we present a comparison of a number of MCMC methods available in the integrated software on several high-dimensional Bayesian inverse problems. These include problems characterized by both linear and nonlinear PDEs, various noise models, and different parameter dimensions. The results demonstrate that large (∼ 50×) speedups over conventional black box and gradient-based MCMC algorithms can be obtained by exploiting Hessian information (from the log-posterior), underscoring the power of the integrated hIPPYlib-MUQ framework. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 31, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  6. Simulations to calculate a single gravitational waveform (GW) can take several weeks. Yet, thousands of such simulations are needed for the detection and interpretation of gravitational waves. Future detectors will require even more accurate waveforms than those currently used. We present here the first large scale, adaptive mesh, multi-GPU numerical relativity (NR) code together with performance analysis and benchmarking. While comparisons are difficult to make, our GPU extension of the Dendro-GR NR code achieves a 6x speedup over existing state-of-the-art codes. We achieve 800 GFlops/s on a single NVIDIA A100 GPU with an overall 2.5x speedup over a two-socket, 128-core AMD EPYC 7763 CPU node with an equivalent CPU implementation. We present detailed performance analyses, parallel scalability results, and accuracy assessments for GWs computed for mass ratios q=1,2,4. We also present strong scalability up to 8 A100s and weak scaling up to 229,376 ×86 cores on the Texas Advanced Computing Center's Frontera system. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    We present an extensible software framework, hIPPYlib, for solution of large-scale deterministic and Bayesian inverse problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) with (possibly) infinite-dimensional parameter fields (which are high-dimensional after discretization). hIPPYlib overcomes the prohibitively expensive nature of Bayesian inversion for this class of problems by implementing state-of-the-art scalable algorithms for PDE-based inverse problems that exploit the structure of the underlying operators, notably the Hessian of the log-posterior. The key property of the algorithms implemented in hIPPYlib is that the solution of the inverse problem is computed at a cost, measured in linearized forward PDE solves, that is independent of the parameter dimension. The mean of the posterior is approximated by the MAP point, which is found by minimizing the negative log-posterior with an inexact matrix-free Newton-CG method. The posterior covariance is approximated by the inverse of the Hessian of the negative log posterior evaluated at the MAP point. The construction of the posterior covariance is made tractable by invoking a low-rank approximation of the Hessian of the log-likelihood. Scalable tools for sample generation are also discussed. hIPPYlib makes all of these advanced algorithms easily accessible to domain scientists and provides an environment that expedites the development of new algorithms. 
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  8. null (Ed.)