skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Ghinita, Gabriel"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 29, 2023
  2. Mobile apps and location-based services generate large amounts of location data. Location density information from such datasets benefits research on traffic optimization, context-aware notifications and public health (e.g., disease spread). To preserve individual privacy, one must sanitize location data, which is commonly done using differential privacy (DP). Existing methods partition the data domain into bins, add noise to each bin and publish a noisy histogram of the data. However, such simplistic modelling choices fall short of accurately capturing the useful density information in spatial datasets and yield poor accuracy. We propose a machine-learning based approach for answering range count queries on location data with DP guarantees. We focus on countering the sources of error that plague existing approaches (i.e., noise and uniformity error) through learning, and we design a neural database system that models spatial data such that density features are preserved, even when DP-compliant noise is added. We also devise a framework for effective system parameter tuning on top of public data, which helps set important system parameters without expending scarce privacy budget. Extensive experimental results on real datasets with heterogeneous characteristics show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state of the art.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Most online mobile services make use of location data to improve customer experience. Mobile users can locate points of interest near them, or can receive recommendations tailored to their whereabouts. However, serious privacy concerns arise when location data is revealed in clear to service providers. Several solutions employ searchable encryption (SE) to evaluate spatial predicates directly on location ciphertexts. While doing so preserves privacy, the performance overhead incurred is high. We focus on a prominent SE technique in the public-key setting -- Hidden Vector Encryption (HVE), and propose a graph embedding technique to encode location data in a way that significantly boost the performance of processing on ciphertexts. We show that finding the optimal encoding is NP-hard, and provide several heuristics that are fast and obtain significant performance gains. Our extensive experimental evaluation on real-life datasets shows that our solutions can improve computational overhead by a factor of two compared to the baseline.
  4. Most online mobile services make use of location data to improve customer experience. Mobile users can locate points of interest near them, or can receive recommendations tailored to their whereabouts. However, serious privacy concerns arise when location data is revealed in clear to service providers. Several solutions employ searchable encryption (SE) to evaluate spatial predicates directly on location ciphertexts. While doing so preserves privacy, the performance overhead incurred is high. We focus on a prominent SE technique in the public-key setting -- Hidden Vector Encryption (HVE), and propose a graph embedding technique to encode location data in a way that significantly boost the performance of processing on ciphertexts. We show that finding the optimal encoding is NP-hard, and provide several heuristics that are fast and obtain significant performance gains. Our extensive experimental evaluation on real-life datasets shows that our solutions can improve computational overhead by a factor of two compared to the baseline.
  5. Monitoring location updates from mobile users has important applications in many areas, ranging from public health (e.g., COVID-19 contact tracing) and national security to social networks and advertising. However, sensitive information can be derived from movement patterns, thus protecting the privacy of mobile users is a major concern. Users may only be willing to disclose their locations when some condition is met, for instance in proximity of a disaster area or an event of interest. Currently, such functionality can be achieved using searchable encryption. Such cryptographic primitives provide provable guarantees for privacy, and allow decryption only when the location satisfies some predicate. Nevertheless, they rely on expensive pairing-based cryptography (PBC), of which direct application to the domain of location updates leads to impractical solutions. We propose secure and efficient techniques for private processing of location updates that complement the use of PBC and lead to significant gains in performance by reducing the amount of required pairing operations. We implement two optimizations that further improve performance: materialization of results to expensive mathematical operations, and parallelization. We also propose an heuristic that brings down the computational overhead through enlarging an alert zone by a small factor (given as system parameter), therefore tradingmore »off a small and controlled amount of privacy for significant performance gains. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed techniques significantly improve performance compared to the baseline, and reduce the searchable encryption overhead to a level that is practical in a computing environment with reasonable resources, such as the cloud.« less
  6. Monitoring location updates from mobile users has important applications in many areas, ranging from public health (e.g., COVID-19 contact tracing) and national security to social networks and advertising. However, sensitive information can be derived from movement patterns, thus protecting the privacy of mobile users is a major concern. Users may only be willing to disclose their locations when some condition is met, for instance in proximity of a disaster area or an event of interest. Currently, such functionality can be achieved using searchable encryption. Such cryptographic primitives provide provable guarantees for privacy, and allow decryption only when the location satisfies some predicate. Nevertheless, they rely on expensive pairing-based cryptography (PBC), of which direct application to the domain of location updates leads to impractical solutions. We propose secure and efficient techniques for private processing of location updates that complement the use of PBC and lead to significant gains in performance by reducing the amount of required pairing operations. We implement two optimizations that further improve performance: materialization of results to expensive mathematical operations, and parallelization. We also propose an heuristic that brings down the computational overhead through enlarging an alert zone by a small factor (given as system parameter), therefore tradingmore »off a small and controlled amount of privacy for significant performance gains. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed techniques significantly improve performance compared to the baseline, and reduce the searchable encryption overhead to a level that is practical in a computing environment with reasonable resources, such as the cloud.« less
  7. The emergence of mobile apps (e.g., location-based services, geo-social networks, ride-sharing) led to the collection of vast amounts of trajectory data that greatly benefit the understanding of individual mobility. One problem of particular interest is next-location prediction, which facilitates location-based advertising, point-of-interest recommendation, traffic optimization,etc. However, using individual trajectories to build prediction models introduces serious privacy concerns, since exact whereabouts of users can disclose sensitive information such as their health status or lifestyle choices. Several research efforts focused on privacy-preserving next-location prediction, but they have serious limitations: some use outdated privacy models (e.g., k-anonymity), while others employ learning models with limited expressivity (e.g., matrix factorization). More recent approaches(e.g., DP-SGD) integrate the powerful differential privacy model with neural networks, but they provide only generic and difficult-to-tune methods that do not perform well on location data, which is inherently skewed and sparse.We propose a technique that builds upon DP-SGD, but adapts it for the requirements of next-location prediction. We focus on user-level privacy, a strong privacy guarantee that protects users regardless of how much data they contribute. Central to our approach is the use of the skip-gram model, and its negative sampling technique. Our work is the first to propose differentially-private learningmore »with skip-grams. In addition, we devise data grouping techniques within the skip-gram framework that pool together trajectories from multiple users in order to accelerate learning and improve model accuracy. Experiments conducted on real datasets demonstrate that our approach significantly boosts prediction accuracy compared to existing DP-SGD techniques.« less
  8. The emergence of mobile apps (e.g., location-based services,geo-social networks, ride-sharing) led to the collection of vast amounts of trajectory data that greatly benefit the understanding of individual mobility. One problem of particular interest is next-location prediction, which facilitates location-based advertising, point-of-interest recommendation, traffic optimization,etc. However, using individual trajectories to build prediction models introduces serious privacy concerns, since exact whereabouts of users can disclose sensitive information such as their health status or lifestyle choices. Several research efforts focused on privacy-preserving next-location prediction, but they have serious limitations: some use outdated privacy models (e.g., k-anonymity), while others employ learning models with limited expressivity (e.g., matrix factorization). More recent approaches(e.g., DP-SGD) integrate the powerful differential privacy model with neural networks, but they provide only generic and difficult-to-tune methods that do not perform well on location data, which is inherently skewed and sparse.We propose a technique that builds upon DP-SGD, but adapts it for the requirements of next-location prediction. We focus on user-level privacy, a strong privacy guarantee that protects users regardless of how much data they contribute. Central toour approach is the use of the skip-gram model, and its negative sampling technique. Our work is the first to propose differentially-private learning with skip-grams.more »In addition, we devise data grouping techniques within the skip-gram framework that pool together trajectories from multiple users in order to acceleratelearning and improve model accuracy. Experiments conducted on real datasets demonstrate that our approach significantly boosts prediction accuracy compared to existing DP-SGD techniques.« less