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Bringmann, Karl ; Grohe, Martin ; Puppis, Gabriele ; Svensson, Ola (Ed.)For edge coloring, the online and the Wstreaming models seem somewhat orthogonal: the former needs edges to be assigned colors immediately after insertion, typically without any space restrictions, while the latter limits memory to be sublinear in the input size but allows an edge’s color to be announced any time after its insertion. We aim for the best of both worlds by designing smallspace online algorithms for edge coloring. Our online algorithms significantly improve upon the memory used by prior ones while achieving an O(1)competitive ratio. We study the problem under both (adversarial) edge arrivals and vertex arrivals. Under vertex arrivals of any nnode graph with maximum vertexdegree Δ, our online O(Δ)coloring algorithm uses only semistreaming space (i.e., Õ(n) space, where the Õ(.) notation hides polylog(n) factors). Under edge arrivals, we obtain an online O(Δ)coloring in Õ(n√Δ) space. We also achieve a smooth colorspace tradeoff: for any t = O(Δ), we get an O(Δt(log²Δ))coloring in Õ(n√{Δ/t}) space, improving upon the state of the art that used Õ(nΔ/t) space for the same number of colors. The improvements stem from extensive use of random permutations that enable us to avoid previously used colors. Most of our algorithms can be derandomized and extended to multigraphs, where edge coloring is known to be considerably harder than for simple graphs.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available January 1, 2025

Guruswami, Venkatesan (Ed.)We present novel lower bounds in the MerlinArthur (MA) communication model and the related annotated streaming or stream verification model. The MA communication model extends the classical communication model by introducing an allpowerful but untrusted player, Merlin, who knows the inputs of the usual players, Alice and Bob, and attempts to convince them about the output. We focus on the online MA (OMA) model where Alice and Merlin each send a single message to Bob, who needs to catch Merlin if he is dishonest and announce the correct output otherwise. Most known functions have OMA protocols with total communication significantly smaller than what would be needed without Merlin. In this work, we introduce the notion of nontrivialOMA complexity of a function. This is the minimum total communication required when we restrict ourselves to only nontrivial protocols where Alice sends Bob fewer bits than what she would have sent without Merlin. We exhibit the first explicit functions that have this complexity superlinear  even exponential  in their classical oneway complexity: this means the trivial protocol, where Merlin communicates nothing and Alice and Bob compute the function on their own, is exponentially better than any nontrivial protocol in terms of total communication. These OMA lower bounds also translate to the annotated streaming model, the MA analogue of singlepass data streaming. We show large separations between the classical streaming complexity and the nontrivial annotated streaming complexity (for the analogous notion in this setting) of fundamental problems such as counting distinct items, as well as of graph problems such as connectivity and kconnectivity in a certain edge update model called the support graph turnstile model that we introduce here.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available January 1, 2025

Chan, Timothy ; Fischer, Johannes ; Iacono, John ; Herman, Grzegorz (Ed.)We study fundamental directed graph (digraph) problems in the streaming model. An initial investigation by Chakrabarti, Ghosh, McGregor, and Vorotnikova [SODA'20] on streaming digraphs showed that while most of these problems are provably hard in general, some of them become tractable when restricted to the wellstudied class of tournament graphs where every pair of nodes shares exactly one directed edge. Thus, we focus on tournaments and improve the state of the art for multiple problems in terms of both upper and lower bounds. Our primary upper bound is a deterministic singlepass semistreaming algorithm (using Õ(n) space for nnode graphs, where Õ(.) hides polylog(n) factors) for decomposing a tournament into strongly connected components (SCC). It improves upon the previously bestknown algorithm by Baweja, Jia, and Woodruff [ITCS'22] in terms of both space and passes: for p ⩾ 1, they used (p+1) passes and Õ(n^{1+1/p}) space. We further extend our algorithm to digraphs that are close to tournaments and establish tight bounds demonstrating that the problem’s complexity grows smoothly with the "distance" from tournaments. Applying our SCCdecomposition framework, we obtain improved  and in some cases, optimal  tournament algorithms for s,treachability, strong connectivity, Hamiltonian paths and cycles, and feedback arc set. On the other hand, we prove lower bounds exhibiting that some wellstudied problems  such as (exact) feedback arc set and s,tdistance  remain hard (require Ω(n²) space) on tournaments. Moreover, we generalize the former problem’s lower bound to establish spaceapproximation tradeoffs: any singlepass (1± ε)approximation algorithm requires Ω(n/√{ε}) space. Finally, we settle the streaming complexities of two basic digraph problems studied by prior work: acyclicity testing of tournaments and sink finding in DAGs. As a whole, our collection of results contributes significantly to the growing literature on streaming digraphs.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available January 1, 2025

Santhanam, Rahul (Ed.)The following question arises naturally in the study of graph streaming algorithms: Is there any graph problem which is "not too hard", in that it can be solved efficiently with total communication (nearly) linear in the number n of vertices, and for which, nonetheless, any streaming algorithm with Õ(n) space (i.e., a semistreaming algorithm) needs a polynomial n^Ω(1) number of passes? Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [STOC 2019] were the first to prove that this is indeed the case. However, the lower bounds that they obtained are for rather nonstandard graph problems. Our first main contribution is to present the first polynomialpass lower bounds for natural "not too hard" graph problems studied previously in the streaming model: kcores and degeneracy. We devise a novel communication protocol for both problems with nearlinear communication, thus showing that kcores and degeneracy are natural examples of "not too hard" problems. Indeed, previous work have developed singlepass semistreaming algorithms for approximating these problems. In contrast, we prove that any semistreaming algorithm for exactly solving these problems requires (almost) Ω(n^{1/3}) passes. The lower bound follows by a reduction from a generalization of the hidden pointer chasing (HPC) problem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna, which is also the basis of their earlier semistreaming lower bounds. Our second main contribution is improved roundcommunication lower bounds for the underlying communication problems at the basis of these reductions:  We improve the previous lower bound of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna for HPC to achieve optimal bounds for this problem.  We further observe that all current reductions from HPC can also work with a generalized version of this problem that we call MultiHPC, and prove an even stronger and optimal lower bound for this generalization. These two results collectively allow us to improve the resulting pass lower bounds for semistreaming algorithms by a polynomial factor, namely, from n^{1/5} to n^{1/3} passes.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available January 1, 2025

Graph coloring is a fundamental problem with wide reaching applications in various areas including ata mining and databases, e.g., in parallel query optimization. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in solving various graph coloring problems in the streaming model. The initial algorithms in this line of work are all crucially randomized, raising natural questions about how important a role randomization plays in streaming graph coloring. A couple of very recent works prove that deterministic or even adversarially robust coloring algorithms (that work on streams whose updates may depend on the algorithm's past outputs) are considerably weaker than standard randomized ones. However, there is still a significant gap between the upper and lower bounds for the number of colors needed (as a function of the maximum degree Δ) for robust coloring and multipass deterministic coloring. We contribute to this line of work by proving the following results. In the deterministic semistreaming (i.e., O(n · polylog n) space) regime, we present an algorithm that achieves a combinatorially optimal (Δ+1)coloring using O(logΔ log logΔ) passes. This improves upon the prior O(Δ)coloring algorithm of Assadi, Chen, and Sun (STOC 2022) at the cost of only an O(log logΔ) factor in the number of passes. In the adversarially robust semistreaming regime, we design an O(Δ5/2)coloring algorithm that improves upon the previously best O(Δ3)coloring algorithm of Chakrabarti, Ghosh, and Stoeckl (ITCS 2022). Further, we obtain a smooth colors/space tradeoff that improves upon another algorithm of the said work: whereas their algorithm uses O(Δ2) colors and O(nΔ1/2) space, ours, in particular, achieves (i)~O(Δ2) colors in O(nΔ1/3) space, and (ii)~O(Δ7/4) colors in O(nΔ1/2) space.more » « less

Computing a dense subgraph is a fundamental problem in graph mining, with a diverse set of applications ranging from electronic commerce to community detection in social networks. In many of these applications, the underlying context is better modelled as a weighted hypergraph that keeps evolving with time. This motivates the problem of maintaining the densest subhypergraph of a weighted hypergraph in a dynamic setting, where the input keeps changing via a sequence of updates (hyperedge insertions/deletions). Previously, the only known algorithm for this problem was due to Hu et al. [19]. This algorithm worked only on unweighted hypergraphs, and had an approximation ratio of (1 +ϵ)r2 and an update time of O(poly(r, log n)), where r denotes the maximum rank of the input across all the updates. We obtain a new algorithm for this problem, which works even when the input hypergraph is weighted. Our algorithm has a significantly improved (nearoptimal) approximation ratio of (1 +ϵ) that is independent of r, and a similar update time of O(poly(r, log n)). It is the first (1 +ϵ)approximation algorithm even for the special case of weighted simple graphs. To complement our theoretical analysis, we perform experiments with our dynamic algorithm on largescale, realworld datasets. Our algorithm significantly outperforms the state of the art [19] both in terms of accuracy and efficiency.more » « less

A streaming algorithm is considered to be adversarially robust if it provides correct outputs with high probability even when the stream updates are chosen by an adversary who may observe and react to the past outputs of the algorithm. We grow the burgeoning body of work on such algorithms in a new direction by studying robust algorithms for the problem of maintaining a valid vertex coloring of an nvertex graph given as a stream of edges. Following standard practice, we focus on graphs with maximum degree at most Δ and aim for colorings using a small number f(Δ) of colors. A recent breakthrough (Assadi, Chen, and Khanna; SODA 2019) shows that in the standard, nonrobust, streaming setting, (Δ+1)colorings can be obtained while using only Õ(n) space. Here, we prove that an adversarially robust algorithm running under a similar space bound must spend almost Ω(Δ²) colors and that robust O(Δ)coloring requires a linear amount of space, namely Ω(nΔ). We in fact obtain a more general lower bound, trading off the space usage against the number of colors used. From a complexitytheoretic standpoint, these lower bounds provide (i) the first significant separation between adversarially robust algorithms and ordinary randomized algorithms for a natural problem on insertiononly streams and (ii) the first significant separation between randomized and deterministic coloring algorithms for graph streams, since deterministic streaming algorithms are automatically robust. We complement our lower bounds with a suite of positive results, giving adversarially robust coloring algorithms using sublinear space. In particular, we can maintain an O(Δ²)coloring using Õ(n √Δ) space and an O(Δ³)coloring using Õ(n) space.more » « less

We study graph computations in an enhanced data streaming setting, where a spacebounded client reading the edge stream of a massive graph may delegate some of its work to a cloud service. We seek algorithms that allow the client to verify a purported proof sent by the cloud service that the work done in the cloud is correct. A line of work starting with Chakrabarti et al. (ICALP 2009) has provided such algorithms, which we call schemes, for several statistical and graphtheoretic problems, many of which exhibit a tradeoff between the length of the proof and the space used by the streaming verifier. This work designs new schemes for a number of basic graph problems  including triangle counting, maximum matching, topological sorting, and singlesource shortest paths  where past work had either failed to obtain smooth tradeoffs between these two key complexity measures or only obtained suboptimal tradeoffs. Our key innovation is having the verifier compute certain nonlinear sketches of the input stream, leading to either new or improved tradeoffs. In many cases, our schemes, in fact, provide optimal tradeoffs up to logarithmic factors. Specifically, for most graph problems that we study, it is known that the product of the verifier’s space cost v and the proof length h must be at least Omega(n^2) for nvertex graphs. However, matching upper bounds are only known for a handful of settings of h and v on the curve h*v = ~Theta(n^2). For example, for counting triangles and maximum matching, schemes with costs lying on this curve are only known for (h = ~O(n²), v = ~O(1)), (h = ~O(n), v = ~O(n)), and the trivial (h = ~O(1), v = ~O(n²)). A major message of this work is that by exploiting nonlinear sketches, a significant "portion" of costs on the tradeoff curve h*v=n^2 can be achieved.more » « less