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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Fault-tolerant coordination services have been widely used in distributed applications in cloud environments. Recent years have witnessed the emergence of time-sensitive applications deployed in edge computing environments, which introduces both challenges and opportunities for coordination services. On one hand, coordination services must recover from failures in a timely manner. On the other hand, edge computing employs local networked platforms that can be exploited to achieve timely recovery. In this work, we first identify the limitations of the leader election and recovery protocols underlying Apache ZooKeeper, the prevailing open-source coordination service. To reduce recovery latency from leader failures, we then design RT-Zookeeper with a set of novel features including a fast-convergence election protocol, a quorum channel notification mechanism, and a distributed epoch persistence protocol. We have implemented RT-Zookeeper based on ZooKeeper version 3.5.8. Empirical evaluation shows that RT-ZooKeeper achieves 91% reduction in maximum recovery latency in comparison to ZooKeeper. Furthermore, a case study demonstrates that fast failure recovery in RT-ZooKeeper can benefit a common messaging service like Kafka in terms of message latency.
  3. Federated scheduling is a generalization of partitioned scheduling for parallel tasks on multiprocessors, and has been shown to be a competitive scheduling approach. However, federated scheduling may waste resources due to its dedicated allocation of processors to parallel tasks. In this work we introduce a novel algorithm for scheduling parallel tasks that require more than one processor to meet their deadlines (i.e., heavy tasks). The proposed algorithm computes a deterministic schedule for each heavy task based on its internal graph structure. It efficiently exploits the processors allocated to each task and thus reduces the number of processors required by the task. Experimental evaluation shows that our new federated scheduling algorithm significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art federated-based scheduling approaches, including semi-federated scheduling and reservation-based federated scheduling, that were developed to tackle resource waste in federated scheduling, and a stretching algorithm that also uses the tasks' graph structures.
  4. Recent advances in machine learning, especially techniques such as deep neural networks, are enabling a range of emerging applications. One such example is autonomous driving, which often relies on deep learning for perception. However, deep learning-based perception has been shown to be vulnerable to a host of subtle adversarial manipulations of images. Nevertheless, the vast majority of such demonstrations focus on perception that is disembodied from end-to-end control. We present novel end-to-end attacks on autonomous driving in simulation, using simple physically realizable attacks: the painting of black lines on the road. These attacks target deep neural network models for endto-end autonomous driving control. A systematic investigation shows that such attacks are easy to engineer, and we describe scenarios (e.g., right turns) in which they are highly effective. We define several objective functions that quantify the success of an attack and develop techniques based on Bayesian Optimization to efficiently traverse the search space of higher dimensional attacks. Additionally, we define a novel class of hijacking attacks, where painted lines on the road cause the driverless car to follow a target path. Through the use of network deconvolution, we provide insights into the successful attacks, which appear to work by mimicking activationsmore »of entirely different scenarios. Our code is available on« less