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    We aim to determine the intrinsic far-Infrared (far-IR) emission of X-ray-luminous quasars over cosmic time. Using a 16 deg2 region of the Stripe 82 field surveyed by XMM-Newton and Herschel Space Observatory, we identify 2905 X-ray luminous (LX > 1042 erg/s) active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the range z ≈ 0–3. The IR is necessary to constrain host galaxy properties such as star formation rate (SFR) and gas mass. However, only 10 per cent of our AGN are detected both in the X-ray and IR. Because 90 per cent of the sample is undetected in the far-IR by Herschel, we explore the mean IR emission of these undetected sources by stacking their Herschel/SPIRE images in bins of X-ray luminosity and redshift. We create stacked spectral energy distributions from the optical to the far-IR, and estimate the median SFR, dust mass, stellar mass, and infrared luminosity using a fitting routine. We find that the stacked sources on average have similar SFR/Lbol ratios as IR detected sources. The majority of our sources fall on or above the main sequence line suggesting that X-ray selection alone does not predict the location of a galaxy on the main sequence. We also find that the gas depletion time scalesmore »of our AGN are similar to those of dusty star forming galaxies. This suggests that X-ray selected AGN host high star formation and that there are no signs of declining star formation.

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  2. Abstract We present the results of a systematic search for quasars in the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey exhibiting both strong photometric and spectroscopic variability over a decadal baseline. We identify 111 sources with specific patterns of optical and mid-IR photometric behavior and a defined spectroscopic change. These “Changing-State” quasars (CSQs) form a higher luminosity sample to complement existing sets of “Changing-Look” AGN and quasars in the literature. The CSQs (by selection) exhibit larger photometric variability than the CLQs. The spectroscopic variability is marginally stronger in the CSQs than CLQs as defined by the change in Hβ/[O iii] ratio. We find 48 sources with declining Hβ flux, 63 sources with increasing Hβ flux and discover eight sources with z > 0.8, further extending the redshift arm. Our CSQ sample compares to the literature CLQ objects in similar distributions of Hβ flux ratios and differential Eddington ratios between high (bright) and low (dim) states. Taken as a whole, we find that this population of extreme varying quasars is associated with changes in the Eddington ratio and the timescales imply cooling/heating fronts propagating through the disk.