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  1. Obeid, Iyad ; Selesnick, Ivan ; Picone, Joseph (Ed.)
    The evaluation of machine learning algorithms in biomedical fields for ap-plications involving sequential data lacks both rigor and standardization. Common quantitative scalar evaluation metrics such as sensitivity and specificity can often be misleading and not accurately integrate application requirements. Evaluation metrics must ultimately reflect the needs of users yet be sufficiently sensitive to guide algorithm development. For example, feedback from critical care clinicians who use automated event detection software in clinical applications has been overwhelmingly emphatic that a low false alarm rate, typically measured in units of the number of errors per 24 hours, is the single most important criterion for user acceptance. Though using a single metric is not often as insightful as examining performance over a range of operating conditions, there is, nevertheless, a need for a sin-gle scalar figure of merit. In this chapter, we discuss the deficiencies of existing metrics for a seizure detection task and propose several new metrics that offer a more balanced view of performance. We demonstrate these metrics on a seizure detection task based on the TUH EEG Seizure Corpus. We introduce two promising metrics: (1) a measure based on a concept borrowed from the spoken term detection literature, Actual Term-Weighted Value,more »and (2) a new metric, Time-Aligned Event Scoring (TAES), that accounts for the temporal align-ment of the hypothesis to the reference annotation. We demonstrate that state of the art technology based on deep learning, though impressive in its performance, still needs significant improvement before it will meet very strict user acceptance guidelines.« less
  2. Obeid, Iyad ; Selesnick, Ivan ; Picone, Joseph (Ed.)
    Scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs) are the primary means by which phy-sicians diagnose brain-related illnesses such as epilepsy and seizures. Au-tomated seizure detection using clinical EEGs is a very difficult machine learning problem due to the low fidelity of a scalp EEG signal. Neverthe-less, despite the poor signal quality, clinicians can reliably diagnose ill-nesses from visual inspection of the signal waveform. Commercially avail-able automated seizure detection systems, however, suffer from unaccepta-bly high false alarm rates. Deep learning algorithms that require large amounts of training data have not previously been effective on this task due to the lack of big data resources necessary for building such models and the complexity of the signals involved. The evolution of big data science, most notably the release of the Temple University EEG (TUEG) Corpus, has mo-tivated renewed interest in this problem. In this chapter, we discuss the application of a variety of deep learning ar-chitectures to automated seizure detection. Architectures explored include multilayer perceptrons, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), long short-term memory networks (LSTMs), gated recurrent units and residual neural networks. We use the TUEG Corpus, supplemented with data from Duke University, to evaluate the performance of these hybrid deep structures. Since TUEG contains a significant amountmore »of unlabeled data, we also dis-cuss unsupervised pre-training methods used prior to training these com-plex recurrent networks. Exploiting spatial and temporal context is critical for accurate disambigua-tion of seizures from artifacts. We explore how effectively several conven-tional architectures are able to model context and introduce a hybrid system that integrates CNNs and LSTMs. The primary error modalities observed by this state-of-the-art system were false alarms generated during brief delta range slowing patterns such as intermittent rhythmic delta activity. A varie-ty of these types of events have been observed during inter-ictal and post-ictal stages. Training models on such events with diverse morphologies has the potential to significantly reduce the remaining false alarms. This is one reason we are continuing our efforts to annotate a larger portion of TUEG. Increasing the data set size significantly allows us to leverage more ad-vanced machine learning methodologies.« less