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  1. Abstract

    Recent work has revealed that the light curves of hydrogen-poor (Type I) superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), thought to be powered by magnetar central engines, do not always follow the smooth decline predicted by a simple magnetar spin-down model. Here we present the first systematic study of the prevalence and properties of “bumps” in the post-peak light curves of 34 SLSNe. We find that the majority (44%–76%) of events cannot be explained by a smooth magnetar model alone. We do not find any difference in supernova properties between events with and without bumps. By fitting a simple Gaussian model to the light-curve residuals, we characterize each bump with an amplitude, temperature, phase, and duration. We find that most bumps correspond with an increase in the photospheric temperature of the ejecta, although we do not see drastic changes in spectroscopic features during the bump. We also find a moderate correlation (ρ≈ 0.5;p≈ 0.01) between the phase of the bumps and the rise time, implying that such bumps tend to happen at a certain “evolutionary phase,” (3.7 ± 1.4)trise. Most bumps are consistent with having diffused from a central source of variable luminosity, although sources further out in the ejecta are not excluded.more »With this evidence, we explore whether the cause of these bumps is intrinsic to the supernova (e.g., a variable central engine) or extrinsic (e.g., circumstellar interaction). Both cases are plausible, requiring low-level variability in the magnetar input luminosity, small decreases in the ejecta opacity, or a thin circumstellar shell or disk.

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  2. Abstract

    It has been shown that ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) have higher specific frequencies of globular clusters, on average, than other dwarf galaxies with similar luminosities. The UDG NGC 5846-UDG1 is among the most extreme examples of globular cluster–rich galaxies found so far. Here we present new Hubble Space Telescope observations and analysis of this galaxy and its globular cluster system. We find that NGC 5846-UDG1 hosts 54 ± 9 globular clusters, three to four times more than any previously known galaxy with a similar luminosity and higher than reported in previous studies. With a galaxy luminosity ofLV,gal≈ 6 × 107L(M≈ 1.2 × 108M) and a total globular cluster luminosity ofLV,GCs≈ 7.6 × 106L, we find that the clusters currently comprise ∼13% of the total light. Taking into account the effects of mass loss from clusters during their formation and throughout their lifetime, we infer that most of the stars in the galaxy likely formed in globular clusters, and very little to no “normal” low-density star formation occurred. This result implies that the most extreme conditions during early galaxy formation promoted star formation in massive and dense clumps, in contrast to the dispersed star formation observed in galaxies today.

  3. Abstract We present high-cadence optical, ultraviolet (UV), and near-infrared data of the nearby ( D ≈ 23 Mpc) Type II supernova (SN) 2021yja. Many Type II SNe show signs of interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) during the first few days after explosion, implying that their red supergiant (RSG) progenitors experience episodic or eruptive mass loss. However, because it is difficult to discover SNe early, the diversity of CSM configurations in RSGs has not been fully mapped. SN 2021yja, first detected within ≈ 5.4 hours of explosion, shows some signatures of CSM interaction (high UV luminosity and radio and x-ray emission) but without the narrow emission lines or early light-curve peak that can accompany CSM. Here we analyze the densely sampled early light curve and spectral series of this nearby SN to infer the properties of its progenitor and CSM. We find that the most likely progenitor was an RSG with an extended envelope, encompassed by low-density CSM. We also present archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the host galaxy of SN 2021yja, which allows us to place a stringent upper limit of ≲ 9 M ☉ on the progenitor mass. However, this is in tension with some aspects of themore »SN evolution, which point to a more massive progenitor. Our analysis highlights the need to consider progenitor structure when making inferences about CSM properties, and that a comprehensive view of CSM tracers should be made to give a fuller view of the last years of RSG evolution.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  4. ABSTRACT AT 2018hyz (= ASASSN-18zj) is a tidal disruption event (TDE) located in the nucleus of a quiescent E+A galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.04573, first detected by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN). We present optical+UV photometry of the transient, as well as an X-ray spectrum and radio upper limits. The bolometric light curve of AT 2018hyz is comparable to other known TDEs and declines at a rate consistent with a t−5/3 at early times, emitting a total radiated energy of E = 9 × 1050 erg. An excess bump appears in the UV light curve about 50 d after bolometric peak, followed by a flattening beyond 250 d. We detect a constant X-ray source present for at least 86 d. The X-ray spectrum shows a total unabsorbed flux of ∼4 × 10−14 erg cm−2 s−1 and is best fit by a blackbody plus power-law model with a photon index of Γ = 0.8. A thermal X-ray model is unable to account for photons >1 keV, while a radio non-detection favours inverse-Compton scattering rather than a jet for the non-thermal component. We model the optical and UV light curves using the Modular Open-Source Fitter for Transients (MOSFiT) and find a best fit for a black hole of 5.2 × 106 M⊙ disrupting a 0.1 M⊙ star; themore »model suggests the star was likely only partially disrupted, based on the derived impact parameter of β = 0.6. The low optical depth implied by the small debris mass may explain how we are able to see hydrogen emission with disc-like line profiles in the spectra of AT 2018hyz (see our companion paper).« less