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  1. Fault-tolerant virtual machine (VM) placement refers to the process of placing multiple copies of the same VM cloud application inside cloud data centers. The challenge is how to place required number of VM replicas while minimizing the number of physical machines (PMs) that store them, in order to save energy consumption of cloud data centers. We refer to it as fault-tolerant VM placement problem. In our previous work, we have proposed a greedy algorithm to solve this problem. In this paper, we compare it with an existing research that is based on well-known Welsh Powell Graph-Coloring Algorithm to place items into bins while considering the conflicts between items and items and items and bins. Via extensive simulations, we show that our greedy algorithm can turn off 40-50% more PMs than existing work and can place upto four times as many VM replicas as existing work, achieving much stronger fault-tolerance with less energy consumption. We also compare both algorithms with the optimal integer lin- ear programming (ILP)-based algorithm, which serves as the benchmark of the comparison.
  2. Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) are software implementation of middleboxes (MBs) (e.g., firewalls) that provide performance and security guarantees for virtual machine (VM) cloud applications. In this paper we study a new flow migration problem in VNF-enabled cloud data centers where the traffic rates of VM flows are constantly changing. Our goal is to minimize the total network traffic (therefore optimizing the network resources such as bandwidth and energy) while considering that VNFs have limited processing capability. We formulate the flow migration problem and design two efficient benefit-based greedy algorithms. The simulations show that our algorithms are effective in reducing the network traffic as well as in achieving load balance among VNFs. In particular, our flow migration algorithms can reduce upto 15% network traffic compared to the case without flow migration.
  3. Virtual machine (VM) replication is an effective technique in cloud data centers to achieve fault-tolerance, load-balance, and quick-responsiveness to user requests. In this paper we study a new fault-tolerant VM placement problem referred to as FT-VMP. Given that different VM has different fault-tolerance requirement (i.e., different VM requires different number of replica copies) and compatibility requirement (i.e., some VMs and their replicas cannot be placed into some physical machines (PMs) due to software or platform incompatibility), FT-VMP studies how to place VM replica copies inside cloud data centers in order to minimize the number of PMs storing VM replicas, under the constraints that i) for fault-tolerant purpose, replica copies of the same VM cannot be placed inside the same PM and ii) each PM has a limited amount of storage capacity. We first prove that FT-VMP is NP-hard. We then design an integer linear programming (ILP)-based algorithm to solve it optimally. As ILP takes time to compute thus is not suitable for large scale cloud data centers, we design a suite of efficient and scalable heuristic fault-tolerant VM placement algorithms. We show that a) ILP-based algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art VM replica placement in a wide range of network dynamics andmore »b) that all our fault-tolerant VM placement algorithms are able to turn off significant number of PMs to save energy in cloud data centers. In particular, we show that our algorithms can consolidate (i.e., turn off) around 100 PMs in a small data center of 256 PMs and 700 PMs in a large data center of 1028PMs.« less