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Discovered by Knöth in 1964, the 10vertex closo carborane anion [HCB 9 H 9 1− ] is a classical bicapped square antiprism that contains an unusual pentacoordinate carbon center. Compared to its larger icosahedral cousin [HCB 11 H 11 1− ], few investigations have been made into its use as a weakly coordinating anion or as a ligand substituent. Here we show that it is possible to prepare both a dianionic Nheterocyclic carbene (NHC) Li + adduct as well as a trianionic C2, C5 dilithio species featuring two 10vertex carborane anion substituents. All compounds were characterized via multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, single crystal Xray diffraction, and HRMS when possible.more » « less

Stencil computations are widely used to simulate the change of state of physical systems across a multidimensional grid over multiple timesteps. The stateoftheart techniques in this area fall into three groups: cacheaware tiled looping algorithms, cacheoblivious divideandconquer trapezoidal algorithms, and Krylov subspace methods. In this paper, we present two efficient parallel algorithms for performing linear stencil computations. Current direct solvers in this domain are computationally inefficient, and Krylov methods require manual labor and mathematical training. We solve these problems for linear stencils by using DFT preconditioning on a Krylov method to achieve a direct solver which is both fast and general. Indeed, while all currently available algorithms for solving general linear stencils perform Θ(NT) work, where N is the size of the spatial grid and T is the number of timesteps, our algorithms perform o(NT) work. To the best of our knowledge, we give the first algorithms that use fast Fourier transforms to compute final grid data by evolving the initial data for many timesteps at once. Our algorithms handle both periodic and aperiodic boundary conditions, and achieve polynomially better performance bounds (i.e., computational complexity and parallel runtime) than all other existing solutions. Initial experimental results show that implementations of our algorithms that evolve grids of roughly 10^7 cells for around 10^5 timesteps run orders of magnitude faster than stateoftheart implementations for periodic stencil problems, and 1.3× to 8.5× faster for aperiodic stencil problems.more » « less

The binaryforking model is a parallel computation model, formally defined by Blelloch et al., in which a thread can fork a concurrent child thread, recursively and asynchronously. The model incurs a cost of Theta(log n) to spawn or synchronize n tasks or threads. The binaryforking model realistically captures the performance of parallel algorithms implemented using modern multithreaded programming languages on multicore sharedmemory machines. In contrast, the widely studied theoretical PRAM model does not consider the cost of spawning and synchronizing threads, and as a result, algorithms achieving optimal performance bounds in the PRAM model may not be optimal in the binaryforking model. Often, algorithms need to be redesigned to achieve optimal performance bounds in the binaryforking model and the nonconstant synchronization cost makes the task challenging. In this paper, we show that in the binaryforking model we can achieve optimal or nearoptimal span with negligible or no asymptotic blowup in work for comparisonbased sorting, Strassen's matrix multiplication (MM), and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Our major results are as follows: (1) A randomized comparisonbased sorting algorithm with optimal O(log n) span and O(nlog n) work, both w.h.p. in n. (2) An optimal O(log n) span algorithm for Strassen's matrix multiplication (MM) with only a loglog n  factor blowup in work as well as a nearoptimal O(log n loglog log n) span algorithm with no asymptotic blowup in work. (3) A nearoptimal O(log n logloglog n) span Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm with less than a log nfactor blowup in work for all practical values of n (i.e., n le 10 ^10,000)more » « less

null (Ed.)The binaryforking model is a parallel computation model, formally defined by Blelloch et al., in which a thread can fork a concurrent child thread, recursively and asynchronously. The model incurs a cost of Theta(log n) to spawn or synchronize n tasks or threads. The binaryforking model realistically captures the performance of parallel algorithms implemented using modern multithreaded programming languages on multicore sharedmemory machines. In contrast, the widely studied theoretical PRAM model does not consider the cost of spawning and synchronizing threads, and as a result, algorithms achieving optimal performance bounds in the PRAM model may not be optimal in the binaryforking model. Often, algorithms need to be redesigned to achieve optimal performance bounds in the binaryforking model and the nonconstant synchronization cost makes the task challenging. In this paper, we show that in the binaryforking model we can achieve optimal or nearoptimal span with negligible or no asymptotic blowup in work for comparisonbased sorting, Strassen's matrix multiplication (MM), and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Our major results are as follows: (1) A randomized comparisonbased sorting algorithm with optimal O(log n) span and O(nlog n) work, both w.h.p. in n. (2) An optimal O(log n) span algorithm for Strassen's matrix multiplication (MM) with only a loglog n  factor blowup in work as well as a nearoptimal O(log n loglog log n) span algorithm with no asymptotic blowup in work. (3) A nearoptimal O(log n logloglog n) span Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm with less than a log nfactor blowup in work for all practical values of n (i.e., n le 10 ^10,000 ).more » « less