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  1. Abstract The ability to engineer parallel, programmable operations between desired qubits within a quantum processor is key for building scalable quantum information systems 1,2 . In most state-of-the-art approaches, qubits interact locally, constrained by the connectivity associated with their fixed spatial layout. Here we demonstrate a quantum processor with dynamic, non-local connectivity, in which entangled qubits are coherently transported in a highly parallel manner across two spatial dimensions, between layers of single- and two-qubit operations. Our approach makes use of neutral atom arrays trapped and transported by optical tweezers; hyperfine states are used for robust quantum information storage, and excitationmore »into Rydberg states is used for entanglement generation 3–5 . We use this architecture to realize programmable generation of entangled graph states, such as cluster states and a seven-qubit Steane code state 6,7 . Furthermore, we shuttle entangled ancilla arrays to realize a surface code state with thirteen data and six ancillary qubits 8 and a toric code state on a torus with sixteen data and eight ancillary qubits 9 . Finally, we use this architecture to realize a hybrid analogue–digital evolution 2 and use it for measuring entanglement entropy in quantum simulations 10–12 , experimentally observing non-monotonic entanglement dynamics associated with quantum many-body scars 13,14 . Realizing a long-standing goal, these results provide a route towards scalable quantum processing and enable applications ranging from simulation to metrology.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 21, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Image-like data from quantum systems promises to offer greater insight into the physics of correlated quantum matter. However, the traditional framework of condensed matter physics lacks principled approaches for analyzing such data. Machine learning models are a powerful theoretical tool for analyzing image-like data including many-body snapshots from quantum simulators. Recently, they have successfully distinguished between simulated snapshots that are indistinguishable from one and two point correlation functions. Thus far, the complexity of these models has inhibited new physical insights from such approaches. Here, we develop a set of nonlinearities for use in a neural network architecture that discoversmore »features in the data which are directly interpretable in terms of physical observables. Applied to simulated snapshots produced by two candidate theories approximating the doped Fermi-Hubbard model, we uncover that the key distinguishing features are fourth-order spin-charge correlators. Our approach lends itself well to the construction of simple, versatile, end-to-end interpretable architectures, thus paving the way for new physical insights from machine learning studies of experimental and numerical data.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Understanding strongly correlated quantum many-body states is one of the most difficult challenges in modern physics. For example, there remain fundamental open questions on the phase diagram of the Hubbard model, which describes strongly correlated electrons in solids. In this work, we realize the Hubbard Hamiltonian and search for specific patterns within the individual images of many realizations of strongly correlated ultracold fermions in an optical lattice. Upon doping a cold-atom antiferromagnet, we find consistency with geometric strings, entities that may explain the relationship between hole motion and spin order, in both pattern-based and conventional observables. Our results demonstrate themore »potential for pattern recognition to provide key insights into cold-atom quantum many-body systems.« less