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    We present the measurements of the small-scale clustering for the emission-line galaxy (ELG) sample from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV). We use conditional abundance matching method to interpret the clustering measurements from 0.34 to $70\, h^{-1}\, \textrm {Mpc}$. In order to account for the correlation between properties of ELGs and their environment, we add a secondary connection between star formation rate of ELGs and halo accretion rate. Three parameters are introduced to model the ELG [O ii] luminosity and to mimic the target selection of eBOSS ELGs. The parameters in our models are optimized using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. We find that by conditionally matching star formation rate of galaxies and the halo accretion rate, we are able to reproduce the eBOSS ELG small-scale clustering within 1σ error level. Our best-fitting model shows that the eBOSS ELG sample only consists of $\sim 12{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of all star-forming galaxies, and the satellite fraction of eBOSS ELG sample is 19.3 per cent. We show that the effect of assembly bias is $\sim 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ on the two-point correlation function and $\sim 5{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ on the voidmore »probability function at scale of $r\sim 20 \, h^{-1}\, \rm Mpc$.

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    We present observational constraints on the galaxy–halo connection, focusing particularly on galaxy assembly bias from a novel combination of counts-in-cylinders statistics, P(NCIC), with the standard measurements of the projected two-point correlation function wp(rp), and number density ngal of galaxies. We measure ngal, wp(rp), and P(NCIC) for volume-limited, luminosity-threshold samples of galaxies selected from SDSS DR7, and use them to constrain halo occupation distribution (HOD) models, including a model in which galaxy occupation depends upon a secondary halo property, namely halo concentration. We detect significant positive central assembly bias for the Mr < −20.0 and Mr < −19.5 samples. Central galaxies preferentially reside within haloes of high concentration at fixed mass. Positive central assembly bias is also favoured in the Mr < −20.5 and Mr < −19.0 samples. We find no evidence of central assembly bias in the Mr < −21.0 sample. We observe only a marginal preference for negative satellite assembly bias in the Mr < −20.0 and Mr < −19.0 samples, and non-zero satellite assembly bias is not indicated in other samples. Our findings underscore the necessity of accounting for galaxy assembly bias when interpreting galaxy survey data, and demonstrate the potential of count statistics in extracting informationmore »from the spatial distribution of galaxies, which could be applied to both galaxy–halo connection studies and cosmological analyses.

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  3. ABSTRACT We use a simulation-based modelling approach to analyse the anisotropic clustering of the BOSS LOWZ sample over the radial range $0.4 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$ to $63 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$, significantly extending what is possible with a purely analytic modelling framework. Our full-scale analysis yields constraints on the growth of structure that are a factor of two more stringent than any other study on large scales at similar redshifts. We infer fσ8 = 0.471 ± 0.024 at $z$ ≈ 0.25, and fσ8 = 0.430 ± 0.025 at $z$ ≈ 0.40; the corresponding ΛCDM predictions of the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) analysis are 0.470 ± 0.006 and 0.476 ± 0.005, respectively. Our results are thus consistent with Planck, but also follow the trend seen in previous low-redshift measurements of fσ8 falling slightly below the ΛCDM + CMB prediction. We find that small- and large-radial scales yield mutually consistent values of fσ8, but there are 1−2.5σ hints of small scales ($\lt 10 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$) preferring lower values for fσ8 relative to larger scales. We analyse the constraining power of the full range of radial scales, finding that most of the multipole information about fσ8 is contained in the scales $2 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}\lesssim s \lesssim 20 \, h^{-1}more »\, \mathrm{Mpc}$. Evidently, once the cosmological information of the quasi-to-nonlinear regime has been harvested, large-scale modes contain only modest additional information about structure growth. Finally, we compare predictions for the galaxy–galaxy lensing amplitude of the two samples against measurements from SDSS and assess the lensing-is-low effect in light of our findings.« less
  4. ABSTRACT The canonical Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model makes precise predictions for the clustering and lensing properties of galaxies. It has been shown that the lensing amplitude of galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is lower than expected given their clustering properties. We present new measurements and modelling of galaxies in the BOSS LOWZ sample. We focus on the radial and stellar mass dependence of the lensing amplitude mismatch. We find an amplitude mismatch of around $35{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ when assuming ΛCDM with Planck Cosmological Microwave Background (CMB) constraints. This offset is independent of halo mass and radial scale in the range Mhalo ∼ 1013.3−1013.9h−1 M⊙ and $r=0.1\!-\!60 \, h^{-1} \mathrm{Mpc}$ ($k \approx 0.05\!-\!20 \, h \, {\rm Mpc}^{-1}$). The observation that the offset is both mass and scale independent places important constraints on the degree to which astrophysical processes (baryonic effects, assembly bias) can fully explain the effect. This scale independence also suggests that the ‘lensing is low’ effect on small and large radial scales probably have the same physical origin. Resolutions based on new physics require a nearly uniform suppression, relative to ΛCDM predictions, of the amplitude of matter fluctuations on these scales.more »The possible causes of this are tightly constrained by measurements of the CMB and of the low-redshift expansion history.« less
  5. Abstract Ultralight bosons such as axion-like particles are viable candidates for dark matter. They can form stable, macroscopic field configurations in the form of topological defects that could concentrate the dark matter density into many distinct, compact spatial regions that are small compared with the Galaxy but much larger than the Earth. Here we report the results of the search for transient signals from the domain walls of axion-like particles by using the global network of optical magnetometers for exotic (GNOME) physics searches. We search the data, consisting of correlated measurements from optical atomic magnetometers located in laboratories all over the world, for patterns of signals propagating through the network consistent with domain walls. The analysis of these data from a continuous month-long operation of GNOME finds no statistically significant signals, thus placing experimental constraints on such dark matter scenarios.
  6. We propose a framework to convert the protein intrinsic disorder content to structural entropy (H) using Shannon’s information theory (IT). The structural capacity (C), which is the sum of H and structural information (I), is equal to the amino acid sequence length of the protein. The structural entropy of the residues expands a continuous spectrum, ranging from 0 (fully ordered) to 1 (fully disordered), consistent with Shannon’s IT, which scores the fully-determined state 0 and the fully-uncertain state 1. The intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) in a living cell may participate in maintaining the high-energy-low-entropy state. In addition, under this framework, the biological functions performed by proteins and associated with the order or disorder of their 3D structures could be explained in terms of information-gains or entropy-losses, or the reverse processes.