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  1. Solid-state additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) is a thermomechanical-based additive manufacturing technique. For this study, AFSD was utilized to produce aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061) blocks with varying layer thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm). The mechanical properties were assessed through uniaxial tensile tests and Vickers microhardness measurement, and statistical analysis was employed to investigate differences among data groups. The results revealed that the deposition layer thickness influences tensile properties in the building (Z) direction, while the properties in the X and Y directions showed minor differences across the three AFSD blocks. Furthermore, variations in tensile properties were observed depending on the sample orientation in the AFSD blocks and its depth-wise position in the part in the building direction. The microhardness values decreased non-linearly along the building direction, spread across the width of the part’s cross-section, and highlighted that the deposition layer thickness significantly affects this property. The 1 mm block exhibited lower average microhardness values than the 2 mm and 3 mm blocks. The temperature histories and dynamic heat treatment are influenced by the deposition layer thickness and depend on the location of the point being studied in the part, resulting in variations in the microstructure and mechanical properties along the building direction and across the part’s width.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 3, 2024
  3. Thermal conductivity (TC) is greatly influenced by the working temperature, microstructures, thermal processing (heat treatment) history and the composition of alloys. Due to computational costs and lengthy experimental procedures, obtaining the thermal conductivity for novel alloys, particularly parts made with additive manufacturing, is difficult and it is almost impossible to optimize the compositional space for an absolute targeted value of thermal conductivity. To address these difficulties, a machine learning method is explored to predict the TC of additive manufactured alloys. To accomplish this, an extensive thermal conductivity dataset for additively manufactured alloys was generated for several AM alloy families (nickel, copper, iron, cobalt-based) over various temperatures (300–1273 K). This unique dataset was used in training and validating machine learning models. Among the five different regression machine learning models trained with the dataset, extreme gradient boosting performs the best as compared with other models with an R2 score of 0.99. Furthermore, the accuracy of this model was tested using Inconel 718 and GRCop-42 fabricated with laser powder bed fusion-based additive manufacture, which have never been observed by the extreme gradient boosting model, and a good match between the experimental results and machine learning prediction was observed. The average mean error in predicting the thermal conductivity of Inconel 718 and GRCop-42 at different temperatures was 3.9% and 2.08%, respectively. This paper demonstrates that the thermal conductivity of novel AM alloys could be predicted quickly based on the dataset and the ML model.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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  6. The solid-state additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) process is a layer-by-layer metal 3D-printing technology. In this study, AFSD is used to fabricate Al–Cu–Li 2050 alloy parts. The hardness values for various regions of the as-deposited built parts are measured, and the results are contrasted with those of the feedstock material. The as-fabricated Al2050 parts are found to have a unique hardness distribution due to the location-specific variations in the processing temperature profile. The XRD results indicate the presence of the secondary phases in the deposited parts, and EDS mapping confirms the formation of detectable alloying particles in the as-deposited Al2050 matrix. The AFSD thermal–mechanical process causes the unique hardness distribution and the reduced microhardness level in the AFSD components, in contrast to those of the feedstock material. 
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  7. In this paper, small blocks of 17-4 PH stainless steel were manufactured via extrusion-based bound powder extrusion (BPE)/atomic diffusion additive manufacturing (ADAM) technology in two different orientations. Ultrasonic bending-fatigue and uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on the test specimens prepared from the AM blocks. Specifically, a recently-introduced small-size specimen design is employed to carry out time-efficient fatigue tests. Based on the results of the testing, the stress–life (S-N) curves were created in the very high-cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime. The effects of the printing orientation on the fatigue life and tensile strength were discussed, supported by fractography taken from the specimens’ fracture surfaces. The findings of the tensile test and the fatigue test revealed that vertically-oriented test specimens had lower ductility and a shorter fatigue life than their horizontally-oriented counterparts. The resulting S-N curves were also compared against existing data in the open literature. It is concluded that the large-sized pores (which originated from the extrusion process) along the track boundaries strongly affect the fatigue life and elongation of the AM parts. 
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  8. In this work, a dataset including structural and mechanical properties of refractory multicomponent alloys was developed by fusing computations of phase diagram (CALPHAD) and density functional theory (DFT). The refractory multicomponent alloys, also named refractory complex concentrated alloys (CCAs) which contain 2–5 types of refractory elements were constructed based on Special Quasi-random Structure (SQS). The phase of alloys was predicted using CALPHAD and the mechanical property of alloys with stable and single body-centered cubic (BCC) at high temperature (over 1,500°C) was investigated using DFT-based simulation. As a result, a dataset with 393 refractory alloys and 12 features, including volume, melting temperature, density, energy, elastic constants, mechanical moduli, and hardness, were produced. To test the capability of the dataset on supporting machine learning (ML) study to investigate the property of CCAs, CALPHAD, and DFT calculations were compared with principal components analysis (PCA) technique and rule of mixture (ROM), respectively. It is demonstrated that the CALPHAD and DFT results are more in line with experimental observations for the alloy phase, structural and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the data were utilized to train a verity of ML models to predict the performance of certain CCAs with advanced mechanical properties, highlighting the usefulness of the dataset for ML technique on CCA property prediction. 
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  9. Refractory complex concentrated alloys (RCCAs) have drawn increasing attention recently owing to their balanced mechanical properties, including excellent creep resistance, ductility, and oxidation resistance. The mechanical and thermal properties of RCCAs are directly linked with the elastic constants. However, it is time consuming and expensive to obtain the elastic constants of RCCAs with conventional trial-and-error experiments. The elastic constants of RCCAs are predicted using a combination of density functional theory simulation data and machine learning (ML) algorithms in this study. The elastic constants of several RCCAs are predicted using the random forest regressor, gradient boosting regressor (GBR), and XGBoost regression models. Based on performance metrics R-squared, mean average error and root mean square error, the GBR model was found to be most promising in predicting the elastic constant of RCCAs among the three ML models. Additionally, GBR model accuracy was verified using the other four RHEAs dataset which was never seen by the GBR model, and reasonable agreements between ML prediction and available results were found. The present findings show that the GBR model can be used to predict the elastic constant of new RHEAs more accurately without performing any expensive computational and experimental work. 
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