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  1. ABSTRACT

    Young stellar clusters are predominantly the hub of star formation and hence, ideal to perform comprehensive studies over the least explored substellar regime. Various unanswered questions like the mass distribution in brown dwarf regime and the effect of diverse cluster environment on brown dwarf formation efficiency still plague the scientific community. The nearby young cluster, IC 1396 with its feedback-driven environment, is ideal to conduct such study. In this paper, we adopt a multiwavelength approach, using deep Subaru HSC along with other data sets and machine learning techniques to identify the cluster members complete down to ∼ 0.03 M⊙ in the central 22 arcmin area of IC 1396. We identify 458 cluster members including 62 brown dwarfs which are used to determine mass distribution in the region. We obtain a star-to-brown dwarf ratio of ∼ 6 for a stellar mass range 0.03–1 M⊙ in the studied cluster. The brown dwarf fraction is observed to increase across the cluster as radial distance from the central OB-stars increases. This study also compiles 15 young stellar clusters to check the variation of star-to-brown dwarf ratio relative to stellar density and ultraviolet (UV) flux ranging within 4–2500 stars pc−2 and 0.7–7.3 G0, respectively. The brown dwarf fraction is observed to increase with stellar density but the results about the influence of incident UV flux are inconclusive within this range. This is the deepest study of IC 1396 as of yet and it will pave the way to understand various aspects of brown dwarfs using spectroscopic observations in future.

     
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  2. Understanding an online argumentative discussion is essential for understanding users' opinions on a topic and their underlying reasoning. A key challenge in determining completeness and persuasiveness of argumentative discussions is to assess how arguments under a topic are connected in a logical and coherent manner. Online argumentative discussions, in contrast to essays or face-to-face communication, challenge techniques for judging argument relevance because online discussions involve multiple participants and often exhibit incoherence in reasoning and inconsistencies in writing style. We define relevance as the logical and topical connections between small texts representing argument fragments in online discussions. We provide a corpus comprising pairs of sentences, labeled with argumentative relevance between the sentences in each pair. We propose a computational approach relying on content reduction and a Siamese neural network architecture for modeling argumentative connections and determining argumentative relevance between texts. Experimental results indicate that our approach is effective in measuring relevance between arguments, and outperforms strong and well-adopted baselines.Further analysis demonstrates the benefit of using our argumentative relevance encoding on a downstream task, predicting how impactful an online comment is to certain topic, comparing to encoding that does not consider logical connection. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 5, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. null (Ed.)
    The Earth has been beset by many crises during its history, and yet comparing the ecological impacts of these mass extinctions has been difficult. Key questions concern the kinds of species that go extinct and survive, how communities rebuild in the post-extinction recovery phase, and especially how the scaling of events affects these processes. Here, we explore ecological impacts of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in three mass extinctions through the mid-Phanerozoic, a span of 121 million years (295–174 Ma). This critical duration encompasses the largest mass extinction of all time, the Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) and is flanked by two smaller crises, the Guadalupian–Lopingian (G–L) and Triassic–Jurassic (T–J) mass extinctions. Palaeocommunity dynamics modelling of 14 terrestrial and freshwater communities through a long sedimentary succession from the lower Permian to the lower Jurassic in northern Xinjiang, northwest China, shows that the P–Tr mass extinction differed from the other two in two ways: (i) ecological recovery from this extinction was prolonged and the three post-extinction communities in the Early Triassic showed low stability and highly variable and unpredictable responses to perturbation primarily following the huge losses of species, guilds and trophic space; and (ii) the G–L and T–J extinctions were each preceded by low-stability communities, but post-extinction recovery was rapid. Our results confirm the uniqueness of the P–Tr mass extinction and shed light on the trophic structure and ecological dynamics of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems across the three mid-Phanerozoic extinctions, and how complex communities respond to environmental stress and how communities recovered after the crisis. Comparisons with the coeval communities from the Karoo Basin, South Africa show that geographically and compositionally different communities of terrestrial ecosystems were affected in much the same way by the P–Tr extinction. 
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  5. SUMMARY We report finite-frequency imaging of the global 410- and 660-km discontinuities using boundary sensitivity kernels for traveltime measurements made on SS precursors. The application of finite-frequency sensitivity kernels overcomes resolution limits in previous studies associated with large Fresnel zones of SS precursors and their interferences with other seismic phases. In this study, we calculate the finite-frequency sensitivities of SS waves and their precursors based on a single-scattering (Born) approximation in the framework of travelling-wave mode summation. The global discontinuity surface is parametrized using a set of triangular gridpoints with a lateral spacing of about 4°, and we solve the linear finite-frequency inverse problem (2-D tomography) based on singular value decomposition (SVD). The new global models start to show a number of features that were absent (or weak) in ray-theoretical back-projection models at spherical harmonic degree l > 6. The thickness of the mantle transition zone correlates well with wave speed perturbations at a global scale, suggesting dominantly thermal origins for the lateral variations in the mantle transition zone. However, an anticorrelation between the topography of the 410-km discontinuity and wave speed variations is not observed at a global scale. Overall, the mantle transition zone is about 2–3 km thicker beneath the continents than in oceanic regions. The new models of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities show better agreement with the finite-frequency study by Lawrence & Shearer than other global models obtained using SS precursors. However, significant discrepancies between the two models exist in the Pacific Ocean and major subduction zones at spherical harmonic degree >6. This indicates the importance of accounting for wave interactions in the calculations of sensitivity kernels as well as the use of finite-frequency sensitivities in data quality control. 
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