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  1. Triaxial neutron stars can be sources of continuous gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. The amplitude of the emitted gravitational wave can be greatly affected by the state of the hydrodynamical fluid flow inside the neutron star. In this work, we examine the most triaxial models along two sequences of constant rest mass, confirming their dynamical stability. We also study the response of a triaxial figure of quasiequilibrium under a variety of perturbations that lead to different fluid flows. Starting from the general relativistic compressible analog of the Newtonian Jacobi ellipsoid, we perform simulations of Dedekind-type flows. We find that in some cases the triaxial neutron star resembles a Riemann-S-type ellipsoid with minor rotation and gravitational wave emission as it evolves towards axisymmetry. The present results highlight the importance of understanding the fluid flow in the interior of a neutron star in terms of its gravitational wave content. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Reproducibility of results is a cornerstone of the scientific method. Scientific computing encounters two challenges when aiming for this goal. Firstly, reproducibility should not depend on details of the runtime environment, such as the compiler version or computing environment, so results are verifiable by third-parties. Secondly, different versions of software code executed in the same runtime environment should produce consistent numerical results for physical quantities. In this manuscript, we test the feasibility of reproducing scientific results obtained using the IllinoisGRMHD code that is part of an open-source community software for simulation in relativistic astrophysics, the Einstein Toolkit. We verify that numerical results of simulating a single isolated neutron star with IllinoisGRMHD can be reproduced, and compare them to results reported by the code authors in 2015. We use two different supercomputers: Expanse at SDSC, and Stampede2 at TACC. By compiling the source code archived along with the paper on both Expanse and Stampede2, we find that IllinoisGRMHD reproduces results published in its announcement paper up to errors comparable to round-off level changes in initial data parameters. We also verify that a current version of IllinoisGRMHD reproduces these results once we account for bug fixes which have occurred since the original publication. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 22, 2024
  3. Abstract

    We present a 3D general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a short-lived neutron star remnant formed in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. The simulation uses an M1 neutrino transport scheme to track neutrino–matter interactions and is well suited to studying the resulting nucleosynthesis and kilonova emission. A magnetized wind is driven from the remnant and ejects neutron-rich material at a quasi-steady-state rate of 0.8 × 10−1Ms−1. We find that the ejecta in our simulations underproducer-process abundances beyond the secondr-process peak. For sufficiently long-lived remnants, these outflowsalonecan produce blue kilonovae, including the blue kilonova component observed for AT2017gfo.

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  4. Abstract

    We presentGRaM-X(GeneralRelativisticacceleratedMagnetohydrodynamics on AMReX), a new GPU-accelerated dynamical-spacetime general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code which extends the GRMHD capability of Einstein Toolkit to GPU-based exascale systems.GRaM-Xsupports 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on GPUs via a new AMR driver for the Einstein Toolkit calledCarpetXwhich in turn leveragesAMReX, an AMR library developed for use by the United States DOE’s Exascale Computing Project. We use the Z4c formalism to evolve the Einstein equations and the Valencia formulation to evolve the equations of GRMHD.GRaM-Xsupports both analytic as well as tabulated equations of state. We implement TVD and WENO reconstruction methods as well as the HLLE Riemann solver. We test the accuracy of the code using a range of tests on static spacetime, e.g. 1D magnetohydrodynamics shocktubes, the 2D magnetic rotor and a cylindrical explosion, as well as on dynamical spacetimes, i.e. the oscillations of a 3D Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhof star. We find excellent agreement with analytic results and results of other codes reported in literature. We also perform scaling tests and find thatGRaM-Xshows a weak scaling efficiency of ∼40%–50% on 2304 nodes (13824 NVIDIA V100 GPUs) with respect to single-node performance on OLCF’s supercomputer Summit.

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  5. Abstract

    This review aims at providing an extensive discussion of modern constraints relevant for dense and hot strongly interacting matter. It includes theoretical first-principle results from lattice and perturbative QCD, as well as chiral effective field theory results. From the experimental side, it includes heavy-ion collision and low-energy nuclear physics results, as well as observations from neutron stars and their mergers. The validity of different constraints, concerning specific conditions and ranges of applicability, is also provided.

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    We present a new moment-based energy-integrated neutrino transport code for neutron star merger simulations in general relativity. In the merger context, ours is the first code to include Doppler effects at all orders in υ/c, retaining all non-linear neutrino–matter coupling terms. The code is validated with a stringent series of tests. We show that the inclusion of full neutrino–matter coupling terms is necessary to correctly capture the trapping of neutrinos in relativistically moving media, such as in differentially rotating merger remnants. We perform preliminary simulations proving the robustness of the scheme in simulating ab-initio mergers to black hole collapse and long-term neutron star remnants up to ${\sim }70\,$ ms. The latter is the longest dynamical space-time, 3D, general relativistic simulations with full neutrino transport to date. We compare results obtained at different resolutions and using two different closures for the moment scheme. We do not find evidences of significant out-of-thermodynamic equilibrium effects, such as bulk viscosity, on the post-merger dynamics or gravitational wave emission. Neutrino luminosities and average energies are in good agreement with theory expectations and previous simulations by other groups using similar schemes. We compare dynamical and early wind ejecta properties obtained with M1 and with our older neutrino treatment. We find that the M1 results have systematically larger proton fractions. However, the differences in the nucleosynthesis yields are modest. This work sets the basis for future detailed studies spanning a wider set of neutrino reactions, binaries, and equations of state.

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  7. Abstract The initial condition problem for a binary neutron star system requires a Poisson equation solver for the velocity potential with a Neumann-like boundary condition on the surface of the star. Difficulties that arise in this boundary value problem are: (a) the boundary is not known a priori , but constitutes part of the solution of the problem; (b) various terms become singular at the boundary. In this work, we present a new method to solve the fluid Poisson equation for irrotational/spinning binary neutron stars. The advantage of the new method is that it does not require complex fluid surface fitted coordinates and it can be implemented in a Cartesian grid, which is a standard choice in numerical relativity calculations. This is accomplished by employing the source term method proposed by Towers, where the boundary condition is treated as a jump condition and is incorporated as additional source terms in the Poisson equation, which is then solved iteratively. The issue of singular terms caused by vanishing density on the surface is resolved with an additional separation that shifts the computation boundary to the interior of the star. We present two-dimensional tests to show the convergence of the source term method, and we further apply this solver to a realistic three-dimensional binary neutron star problem. By comparing our solution with the one coming from the initial data solver cocal, we demonstrate agreement to approximately 1%. Our method can be used in other problems with non-smooth solutions like in magnetized neutron stars. 
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