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  1. Aluminum nanocrystals (AlNCs) are of increasing interest as sustainable, earth-abundant nanoparticles for visible wavelength plasmonics and as versatile nanoantennas for energy-efficient plasmonic photocatalysis. Here, we show that annealing AlNCs under various gases and thermal conditions induces substantial, systematic changes in their surface oxide, modifying crystalline phase, surface morphology, density, and defect type and concentration. Tailoring the surface oxide properties enables AlNCs to function as all-aluminum-based antenna-reactor plasmonic photocatalysts, with the modified surface oxides providing varying reactivities and selectivities for several chemical reactions.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 12, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Van der Waals (vdW) ferroelectrics have attracted significant attention for their potential in next-generation nano-electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) group-IV monochalcogenides have emerged as a promising candidate due to their strong room temperature in-plane polarization down to a monolayer limit. However, their polarization is strongly coupled with the lattice strain and stacking orders, which impact their electronic properties. Here, we utilize four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM) to simultaneously probe the in-plane strain and out-of-plane stacking in vdW SnSe. Specifically, we observe large lattice strain up to 4% with a gradient across ~50 nm to compensate lattice mismatch at domain walls, mitigating defects initiation. Additionally, we discover the unusual ferroelectric-to-antiferroelectric domain walls stabilized by vdW force and may lead to anisotropic nonlinear optical responses. Our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of in-plane and out-of-plane structures affecting domain properties in vdW SnSe, laying the foundation for domain wall engineering in vdW ferroelectrics.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Bismuth ferrite has garnered considerable attention as a promising candidate for magnetoelectric spin-orbit coupled logic-in-memory. As model systems, epitaxial BiFeO3thin films have typically been deposited at relatively high temperatures (650–800 °C), higher than allowed for direct integration with silicon-CMOS platforms. Here, we circumvent this problem by growing lanthanum-substituted BiFeO3at 450 °C (which is reasonably compatible with silicon-CMOS integration) on epitaxial BaPb0.75Bi0.25O3electrodes. Notwithstanding the large lattice mismatch between the La-BiFeO3, BaPb0.75Bi0.25O3, and SrTiO3(001) substrates, all the layers in the heterostructures are well ordered with a [001] texture. Polarization mapping using atomic resolution STEM imaging and vector mapping established the short-range polarization ordering in the low temperature grown La-BiFeO3. Current-voltage, pulsed-switching, fatigue, and retention measurements follow the characteristic behavior of high-temperature grown La-BiFeO3, where SrRuO3typically serves as the metallic electrode. These results provide a possible route for realizing epitaxial multiferroics on complex-oxide buffer layers at low temperatures and opens the door for potential silicon-CMOS integration.

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  4. Abstract

    Seed-mediated synthesis strategies, in which small gold nanoparticle precursors are added to a growth solution to initiate heterogeneous nucleation, are among the most prevalent, simple, and productive methodologies for generating well-defined colloidal anisotropic nanostructures. However, the size, structure, and chemical properties of the seeds remain poorly understood, which partially explains the lack of mechanistic understanding of many particle growth reactions. Here, we identify the majority component in the seed solution as an atomically precise gold nanocluster, consisting of a 32-atom Au core with 8 halide ligands and 12 neutral ligands constituting a bound ion pair between a halide and the cationic surfactant: Au32X8[AQA+•X-]12(X = Cl, Br; AQA = alkyl quaternary ammonium). Ligand exchange is dynamic and versatile, occurring on the order of minutes and allowing for the formation of 48 distinct Au32clusters with AQAX (alkyl quaternary ammonium halide) ligands. Anisotropic nanoparticle syntheses seeded with solutions enriched in Au32X8[AQA+•X-]12show narrower size distributions and fewer impurity particle shapes, indicating the importance of this cluster as a precursor to the growth of well-defined nanostructures.

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  5. Abstract

    Understanding lattice deformations is crucial in determining the properties of nanomaterials, which can become more prominent in future applications ranging from energy harvesting to electronic devices. However, it remains challenging to reveal unexpected deformations that crucially affect material properties across a large sample area. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and semi-automated unsupervised machine learning approach to uncover lattice deformations in materials. Our method utilizes divisive hierarchical clustering to automatically unveil multi-scale deformations in the entire sample flake from the diffraction data using four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM). Our approach overcomes the current barriers of large 4D data analysis without a priori knowledge of the sample. Using this purely data-driven analysis, we have uncovered different types of material deformations, such as strain, lattice distortion, bending contour, etc., which can significantly impact the band structure and subsequent performance of nanomaterials-based devices. We envision that this data-driven procedure will provide insight into materials’ intrinsic structures and accelerate the discovery of materials.

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